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Kingdoms of Africa. Kingdoms of Africa. Anthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy) Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here... Rise of Egyptian Society affected other African Cultures along the Nile Kush Iron producers

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Kingdoms of Africa

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Kingdoms of africa

Kingdoms of Africa


Kingdoms of africa1

Kingdoms of Africa

  • Anthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy)

    Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here...

  • Rise of Egyptian Society affected

    other African Cultures along the

    Nile

    • Kush

      • Iron producers

      • Also sold ivory, ebony, wood, slaves

    • Axum

  • Ethiopia later adopted its own Christianity


The gold salt trade

The Gold-Salt Trade

  • North Africa is mainly Sahara desert

  • South of the Sahara are grasslands known as the savanna

  • The savanna is home to large groups of pastoral peoples that herd cattle and sheep

  • These peoples also smelted iron, grew crops and had complex communities with craftspersons, warriors and traders.


The gold salt trade1

The Gold-Salt Trade

  • Sahara Desert acted as a barrier between people of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean World

  • Trade was, however, never cut off

    completely

  • Sahara contains oases with fresh water

  • Camels helped merchants cross the

    desert once they knew where the oases

    were located

  • Muslim merchants from Mediterranean also made this journey


The gold salt trade2

The Gold-Salt Trade

  • Merchants were motivated to make the journey across the Sahara because of the gold and other riches they could obtain from West Africa

  • Parts of West Africa lacked Salt

    • Salt is vital for human survival

  • Merchants in camel caravans

    picked up salt on their journey to

    trade for gold

  • Ideas, Islamic Beliefs and various goods were exchanged in this way


Apply it

Apply it!

  • Compare the African Gold-Salt Trade with that of the Silk Road?

  • Why was the Sahara a trade barrier?

  • How was that barrier conquered?


The rise of west african kingdoms

The Rise of West African Kingdoms

  • West Africa saw the rise of many powerful kingdoms based on the control of trade routes

  • Civilizations dominated West Africa for the next thousand years

  • This lead to an exchange of

    ideas, rise of cities and

    increased wealth


Kingdom of ghana 750 1200

Kingdom of Ghana 750-1200

  • Developed in West Africa between the Senegal and Niger Rivers

  • People of Ghana made iron swords, spears and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and gain control of major trade routes

  • Needed Salt…trade it for Gold (which they had)


Kingdom of ghana

Kingdom of Ghana

  • Kings of Ghana taxed trade passing through the regions

  • With this revenue, they raised a large army with a cavalry

  • Rulers built a capital city and governed a wide area with officials and nobles


Kingdom of ghana1

Kingdom of Ghana

  • Kings appointed nobles to govern the provinces in return for paying taxes to the central government

  • System had similarities to European Feudalism

  • Rulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves

  • Ghana was invaded by Muslims from North Africa.

    • Muslims brought Islam to the area

  • Ghana never recovered from this invasion and dissolved into smaller states


Apply it1

Apply it!

  • How did Ghana benefit from the trade in the area?

  • How is the political system of Ghana similar to that of Medieval Europe?


Kingdom of mali 1240 1400

Kingdom of Mali 1240-1400

  • In 1240, the people of Mali conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire

  • The rulers brought gold and salt mines under their control.

  • Mali’s rulers converted to Islam

    • But most people stayed loyal to traditional beliefs and rejected Islam


Kingdom of mali

Kingdom of Mali


Kingdom of mali1

Kingdom of Mali

  • Mali’s most famous ruler was Mansa Musa(click)

  • Mansa Musa was the main Muslim man of Mali who went many miles to the main Muslim mosque in Mecca with a magnificent menagerie and meaded out much money to many men, maybe millions and brought back many Muslim scholars for much learning.

  • Expanded the kingdom greatly

  • Took religious pilgrimage to Mecca

    • Also visited Cairo

  • Observers were impressed with his wealth

  • He brought back Muslim scholars and architects to Mali


Kingdom of mali2

Kingdom of Mali

  • Mansa Musa commissioned a palace and giant mosque to be built in Timbuktu, a thriving trade center on the Niger River

  • Muslim scholarship in Mali flourished

  • Timbuktu became an important center of universities and attracted students from Europe, Asia and Africa

  • Many of his subjects studied the Qur’an and learned to read and write


Kingdom of mali3

Kingdom of Mali

  • IbnBattuta was an arab traveler

  • Impressed by Mali’s wealth, respect

    for law and power of it’s ruler

  • IbnBattuta traveled extensively and

    wrote about the various kingdoms

    of the area

  • It is through his writings that scholars know much about the life in Africa and the Middle East


Kingdom of songhai 1464 1600

Kingdom of Songhai1464-1600

  • In 1465, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai, captured Timbuktu and brought the Upper Niger River under his control

  • Kingdom of Songhai became the largest of West Africa’s three trading kingdoms

  • Like Ghana and Mali, Songhai grew rich from trade across the Sahara Desert

  • Expanded trade routes as far as Europe and Asia


Kingdom of songhai

Kingdom of Songhai

  • The Songhai established a system of taxation and communications

  • Timbuktu flourished as a center of Muslim scholarship

  • Despite its riches and power the Kingdom of Songhai lasted only 130 years


Kingdom of songhai1

Kingdom of Songhai

  • In 1591, the ruler of Morocco, hearing of Songhai’s wealth, invaded West Africa

  • Although Songhai army was larger, Moroccans used gunpowder and muskets to defeat the Songhai who fought only with arrows and spears

  • Despite their military success, Moroccans were unable to govern from a distance

  • West Africa split into large number of independent areas

  • The fall of the Songhai marked the end of the great West African Kingdoms


Apply it2

Apply it!

  • What parallel can you see when looking at both the control of Songhai by Morocco and subsequent fall and that of the American colonies?


Other african states

Other African States

  • Ife and Benin

    • These Kingdoms developed in the rainforests of West Africa

    • Famous for the copper and bronze scultputres

    • Benin became involved in the slave trade

      • Took captured persons from other tribes and exchanged them with Europeans for guns and iron goods


Apply it3

Apply it!

  • Was the slave trade a European invention?

  • Why or why not?


Other african states1

Other African States

  • Zimbabwe

  • Gold deposits near Zimbabwe was crucial to the rise of this state

  • Zimbabwe traded gold, copper and ivory with Muslim traders along the east coast


Other african states2

Other African States

  • Coastal Cities of East Africa

  • A number of independent city-states arose around the 10th Century

  • Gold from the African interior was sent down the Zambia River to these cities where it was sold to merchants from Arabia and India


Apply it4

Apply it!

  • What did all the trade in Africa inevitably lead to?

  • How do the Kingdoms of Africa compare to Classical and Post Classical societies we’ve already discussed?


Family roles in africa

Family Roles in Africa

  • In traditional African Societies, both boys and girls were separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty

  • Marriages were arranged

    • Groom paid a dowry to his bride’s family

  • Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while the husband represented the family outside it

  • “A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it.”


Apply it5

Apply it!

Ghana Invaded by Muslims

Morocco Conquered Songhai

Mansa Musa’s Trip

Ghana Founded

Mali Collapsed

Mali Founded

Songhai Founded

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