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Subjects in the FR family. Gordon Dunsire Presented at the CC:DA/SAC joint meeting, ALA Annual, 27 June 2011. Overview. Functional Requirements and Resource Description Framework Semantics and inferencing Treatment of “subject” in each FR model Reconciling the models Some open questions.

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Subjects in the fr family

Subjects in the FR family

Gordon Dunsire

Presented at the CC:DA/SAC joint meeting, ALA Annual, 27 June 2011


Overview
Overview

  • Functional Requirements and Resource Description Framework

  • Semantics and inferencing

  • Treatment of “subject” in each FR model

  • Reconciling the models

  • Some open questions


Fr family history
FR family history

  • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) published in 1997/8

    • Amended and corrected 2009

  • Functional Requirements for Authority Date (FRAD) published in 2009

  • Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD) published in 2010


Fr in rdf
FR in RDF

  • FR models represented in Resource Description Framework (RDF)

    • FRBR Namespace project

    • RDF is basis of the Semantic Web

  • Representations made separately for each model to recapitulate historical development

    • Learning curve for FRBR Review Group

    • Informs development of consolidated model


Resource description framework
Resource Description Framework

  • Metadata expressed as “atomic” statements

    • A simple, single, irreducible statement

      • The title of this book is “Treasure island”

  • Metadata statement constructed in 3 parts: a “triple”

    • Subject of the statement = Subject: This book

    • Nature of the statement = Predicate: has title

    • Value of the statement = Object: “Treasure island”

    • This book – has title – “Treasure island”

      • subject – predicate - object


Rdf triple
RDF triple

  • Subject and predicate MUST be machine-identifiable

    • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

  • Object MAY be a URI, or a literal

    • “Treasure Island”

  • Predicate = RDF Property


E r in rdf
E-R in RDF

Entity

Class

Set of individuals with similar characteristics

Relates one individual to another individual or value

Relationship

Property


Property domain and range
Property domain and range

  • A property links two specific things

    • The subject and object of a triple using the property

    • This book – has subject – that topic

  • A property may be defined to indicate the type (class) of thing that is its subject: Domain

  • A property may indicate the class that is its object: Range


Inferencing 1
Inferencing (1)

This thing – has subject – that thing

Implies:

This thing – is a – Book

Implies:

That thing – is a – Topic

Book and Topic are classes (types of thing)


Inferencing 2
Inferencing (2)

  • A sub-class is a sub-type of thing

  • A sub-property is a refinement of a property

  • The domain or range of a sub-property is a sub-class of the domain or range of the property

  • Therefore a thing which is of the class of the domain or range of a triple using a sub-property is also of the class of the domain or range of the property


FRBR “Subject” relationships: E-R diagram

Work

Work

Group 1

Expression

has as subject

[is subject of]

Manifestation

Item

Person

Group 2

has as subject

[is subject of]

Corporate Body

Concept

Group 3

Object

has as subject

[is subject of]

Event

Place




Frad treatment of subject 1
FRAD treatment of subject (1)

  • New attribute of FRBR Work entity

    • Subject of the work

      • “The subject aspects of the work and its content.”

      • “Includes information about the subject of the work. Includes classification numbers.”

  • New Family entity

    • Added to the FRBR high-level E-R diagram

      • Adds subject relationship between Work and Family


Frad treatment of subject 2
FRAD treatment of subject (2)

  • Descriptive relationship

    • “The relationship between a target work or expression or manifestation or item and a new work that refers to that target as its subject (e.g., criticism, commentary, review, casebook, etc., and the object of that analysis).

    • This type of relationship is usually expressed in bibliographic data through a subject controlled access point for the target work rather than through authority data.”


Frad treatment of subject 3
FRAD treatment of subject (3)

  • Controlled access point/Corresponding subject term or classification number relationship

    • “The relationship between the controlled access point for the name of an entity (for a person, family, corporate body, work, expression, manifestation, item, concept, object, event, place) and a subject term in a controlled vocabulary, and/or a classification number for that entity. Here the subject term and the classification number may also be viewed as parallel names/identifiers for the name of the same entity.”


FRAD “Subject” relationships: RDF properties

Not a “subject of” relationship



FRSAD: E-R diagram

Work

has as subject

Thema

is subject of

has appellation

Nomen

is appellation of


FRSAD “Subject” relationships: RDF properties

FRSAD “Subject” relationships: RDF inverse properties


FRBR/FRSAD: E-R diagram

Thema

Work

Work

has as subject

Expression

Manifestation

has as subject

Item

is subject of

has appellation

Person

has as subject

is appellation of

Corporate Body

Family

Concept

has as subject

Object

Event

Nomen

Place


Work

Work

Work

Work

Work

Work

frbrer:has as subject (G1)

frbrer:has as subject (G3)

frbrer:has as subject (G2)

frad:has subject of the work

frsad:has as subject

frad:is descriptive work of

Thema

G1

G3

G2

G1

G3 – is a sub-class of – Thema

is a sub-property of

Implies:

G2 – is a sub-class of – Thema

G1 – is a sub-class of – Thema


Is thema a class
Is Thema a class?

  • (In a non-trivial sense)

  • Any thing can be a thema (?)

  • Thema has only 2 attributes

    • Type

    • Scope note

  • Does this imply that Thema is an equivalent class to Thing (the class of all classes)?


Reconciling nomen
Reconciling Nomen

  • Nomen is a class of labels?

  • There are many label-type classes in the FR family

    • FRAD: Controlled Access Point, Name (of a Person, etc.)

    • FRBR properties with no range: titles, terms, designations, etc.

  • Relationship with SKOSXL class Label?


Thank you
Thank you

  • [email protected]

  • Sponsors

    • ALA

    • Cataloging & Classification Quarterly

    • MARCIVE, Inc.


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