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Homework. Chapter 14: HW 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34,36,45,58, 59 a, b, c. Chapter 14 Switching. Circuit Switching Packet Switching Virtual circuit packet switching Datagram packet switching Message Switching. Switch.

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Homework

Homework

  • Chapter 14:

    • HW 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34,36,45,58, 59 a, b, c


Chapter 14 switching

Chapter 14Switching

  • Circuit Switching

  • Packet Switching

    • Virtual circuit packet switching

    • Datagram packet switching

  • Message Switching


Switch

Switch

  • A hardware/software device capable of providing temporary connection among devices linked to the switch.


Homework

Circuit switch may have n inputs and

m outputs


Homework

Switched Network


Homework

VC approach

Datagram approach

Switched VC

Permanent VC


Homework

Circuit-Switched Network

For mesh connection: No. of connections= n/2(n-1)=21

For point-to-point connection: No. of connections= n*m=12

Four switches are used to connect computers on the left to

Computers on the right


Circuit switching networks

CircuitSwitching Networks

  • Dedicated circuit must be established first.

  • Data is transferred.

  • Data is transferred in bit streams.

  • Circuit is terminated

  • Example: (Public Switched Telephone Network, PSTN)


Circuit switching networks1

CircuitSwitching Networks

  • Suitable for voice transmission.

  • Two devices must have the same data transmission rate.

  • Inflexible (once circuit is established, all data must follow the same path regardless of network conditions)

  • Not suitable for bursty traffic.

  • Circuits can be blocked.

  • You are charged for the circuit time.

  • The use of bandwidth may not be efficient.


Circuit switching technologies

CircuitSwitching Technologies

  • Space-divisions switching

    • Crossbar switches

    • Multistage switches

  • Time-divisions switching


Homework

Crossbar Switch


Advantages of crossbar switch

Advantages of Crossbar Switch

  • Calls can not be blocked

  • Connection is instantaneous

  • Suitable for small number of inputs/outputs.


Disadvantages of crossbar switch

Disadvantages of Crossbar Switch

  • The number of cross-points increases by approximately the square of the input/output devices.

  • Impractical for large number of inputs/outputs.

  • Inefficient use of the available circuits


Homework

Multistage Switch

1

1

2

5

6

10

11

15

No. of crosspoints=3x(5x2)2*2x(3x3)+3x(2x5)=78

Single stage 15x15=225


Disadvantage of multistage switch

Disadvantage of Multistage Switch

  • Blocking


Homework

Switching Path


Homework

Switching Path


Time division switches

Time-Division Switches

  • TDM is used to achieve switching.

    • Two TDM methods used are:

      • Time-slot interchange

      • TDM bus

        • Synchronous

        • Asynchronous


Homework

TDM without Time-Slot Interchange (TSI)


Homework

TDM with TSI


Homework

Time-Slot Interchange (TSI)


Advantage and disadvantage of time division switching

Advantage and Disadvantage of Time-Division Switching

  • Advantage:

    • It does not need crosspoints.

  • Disadvantages:

    • Processing time (data must be stored in RAM, retrieved, and processed)


Tdm bus

TDM Bus

  • I/O lines connected to high speed bus through I/O gates.

  • I/O lines are assigned time slot.

  • Devices can transmit during their assigned time slot.

  • One input gate is closed and only one output gate is closed during each time slot.


Circuit switching

Circuit Switching

  • Total transmission time

    • Call setup time

    • Signal propagation time

    • Data transmission time

      • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.


Circuit switching example

Circuit Switching (example)

  • The speed of propagation on a TDM bus is 0.8c, its length is 1 m, and the data rate is 500 Mbps. Calculate the total time to transmit 10 Mbytes of data.

    • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.


Circuit switching networks review

Circuit Switching Networks (review)

  • Suitable for voice transmission.

  • Two devices must have the same data transmission rate.(constant rate)

  • Not suitable for bursty traffic.

  • Inflexible (once circuit is established, all data must follow the same path regardless of network conditions)

  • Circuits can be blocked.

  • You are charged for the circuit time.

  • The use of bandwidth may not be efficient.


Homework

Packet Switching

Datagram approach

VC approach

Switched VC

Permanent VC


Packet switching networks

Packet Switching Networks

  • Suitable for audio, video, data transmission.

  • Two devices with different transmission speeds can exchange data. (variable data rate)

  • Priorities can be assigned.

  • Suitable for bursty traffic.

  • Circuits can not be blocked.


Homework

Switched Virtual Circuit


Homework

Switched Virtual Circuit


Homework

Switched Virtual Circuit


Virtual circuit packet switching networks

Virtual Circuit Packet SwitchingNetworks

  • Total transmission time

    • Call setup time for VC

    • Signal propagation time

    • Packets transmission time

      • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.


Homework

Datagram Approach


Datagram packet switching networks

Datagram Packet SwitchingNetworks

  • Total transmission time

    • Signal propagation time

    • Packets transmission time

      • ttot=t prop.+ttrans.


Homework

Datagram Approach, Multiple Channels


Homework

Message Switching


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