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Chemistry 112. Ionic and Metallic Bonding. Valence Electrons. We now know that the ways in which elements behave is due to its electron configuration Elements within groups behave similarly with one another because they have very similar e- configurations

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chemistry 112

Chemistry 112

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • We now know that the ways in which elements behave is due to its electron configuration
  • Elements within groups behave similarly with one another because they have very similar e- configurations
    • The number of valence e- is identical from one element to the next within a group
how do we know how many valence e there are in an atom
How do we know how many valence e- there are in an atom?
  • The periodic table divides elements into groups
  • The group number corresponds to the number of valence e- in the outermost orbital of a particular atom
  • Ex. Group 14 elements = 4 valence e-
electron dot structures
Electron Dot Structures
  • Valence e- are those typically involved in making bonds with other atoms
  • We can write valence e- in the form of electron dot structures
  • Valence e- are represented as dots around an electron’s symbol
  • Table 7.1, page 188
the octet rule
The Octet Rule
  • Atoms tend to achieve an electron configuration like that of noble gases
  • An octet is a group of eight
  • Atoms of metals tend to lose valence e-, leaving a complete octet at a lower level
  • Nonmetals tend to gain e- in order to have a filled octet where their valence e- currently are
formation of cations
Formation of Cations
  • An ion forms when an atom gains or loses e-
  • When an atom loses an e-, it becomes positively charged
    • It is otherwise referred to as a cation
  • Figure 7.2, p. 189
exceptions to the octet rule
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
  • Many of the transition elements do not follow the octet rule
  • Configurations make take on a pseudo noble-gas configuration
    • Ex. Silver, copper, gold and cadmium
formation of anions
Formation of Anions
  • An anion is an ion with a negative charge
  • The suffix of an anion changes to –ide
  • It is easier for anions to gain e- in order to achieve a filled outermost orbital
  • Specifically, when halogens gain an e- to achieve a stable octet, it becomes a halide ion
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