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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

Mr. Cargile

Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass


Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

Atlantic Explorations World:

Looking for “El Dorado”

The First Spanish Conquests: World:The Aztecs


Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas World:


Francisco Pizarro


Slaves Working in a World:Brazilian Sugar Mill

Why would the World:

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of



Cycle of Conquest & Colonization World:






Treasures World:from the Americas!

The Slave Trade World:

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

Slave Ship World:

“Middle Passage”

African Captives World:Thrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

The Colonial Class System World:





Native Indians

Black Slaves

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World World:

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church World:

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & World:The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

Father Bartolome de Las Casas World:

New Laws  1542

New Colonial Rivals World:

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

Impact of European Expansion World:

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.