The Age of Early
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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA

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The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

Mr. Cargile

Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA


Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”


A Map of the Known World,pre- 1492


Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.


New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant


New Weapons Technology


Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419


Museum of Navigationin Lisbon


Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).


Christofo Colon [1451-1506]


Columbus’ Four Voyages


Other Voyages of Exploration


Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c


Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”


The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II


The Death of Montezuma II


Mexico Surrenders to Cortez


The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa


Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill


Why would the

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??


The “Columbian Exchange”


Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers


Treasuresfrom the Americas!


Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade


The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.


Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”


“Coffin” Position Below Deck


African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!


European Empires in the Americas


The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves


Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.


The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission


The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation


Father Bartolome de Las Casas

New Laws  1542


New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.


New Colonial Rivals


Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.


5. New Patterns of World Trade


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