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Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA

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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

Mr. Cargile

Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA

slide2

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca
  • A New Player  Europe
    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271
    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.
    • Better seaworthy ships.
  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
slide4

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

slide5

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant

slide7

Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419
slide9

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.
  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.
    • Calicut.
  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
slide14

Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”

slide15

The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II

slide18

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa

slide20

Why would the

\'Columbian Exchange\'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??

slide22

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers

slide25

The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
slide26

Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”

slide28

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!

slide30

The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves

slide31

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.
  • Council of the Indies.
    • Viceroy.
    • New Spain and Peru.
  • Papal agreement.
slide32

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission

slide35

New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.
  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
    • Surat in NW India in 1608.
  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
slide37

Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.

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