The Age of Early
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The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA. Earlier Explorations. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

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Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA

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Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Age of Early

European Explorations

& Conquests

Mr. Cargile

Mission Hills High School, San Marcos CA


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

  • A New Player  Europe

    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

    • Better seaworthy ships.

  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

A Map of the Known World,pre- 1492


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Motives for European Exploration

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

New Maritime Technologies

Better Maps [Portulan]

Hartman Astrolabe(1532)

Mariner’s Compass

Sextant


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

New Weapons Technology


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Prince Henry, the Navigator

  • School for Navigation, 1419


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Museum of Navigationin Lisbon


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.

  • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.

    • Calicut.

  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Christofo Colon [1451-1506]


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Columbus’ Four Voyages


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Other Voyages of Exploration


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Atlantic Explorations

Looking for “El Dorado”


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs

vs.

Fernando Cortez

Montezuma II


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Death of Montezuma II


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Mexico Surrenders to Cortez


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas

vs.

Francisco Pizarro

Atahualpa


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Why would the

'Columbian Exchange'

be considered the

tsunami of

unintentional

"bio-terrorism"??


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The “Columbian Exchange”


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

Explorers

Conquistadores

OfficialEuropeanColony!

Missionaries

PermanentSettlers


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Treasuresfrom the Americas!


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.

  • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Slave Ship

“Middle Passage”


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

“Coffin” Position Below Deck


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

African CaptivesThrown Overboard

Sharks followed the slave ships!


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

European Empires in the Americas


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Colonial Class System

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattos

Native Indians

Black Slaves


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomienda or forced labor.

  • Council of the Indies.

    • Viceroy.

    • New Spain and Peru.

  • Papal agreement.


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe

Guadalajara Cathedral

Spanish Mission


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Father Bartolome de Las Casas

New Laws  1542


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

New Colonial Rivals

  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

    • Surat in NW India in 1608.

  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

New Colonial Rivals


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

Impact of European Expansion

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.


Mr cargile mission hills high school san marcos ca

5. New Patterns of World Trade


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