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Single-Group Studies. Based on C.E. Sleeter & C.A. Grant (2003). Making Choices for Multicultural Education (4 th Ed.). Goals & Rationale. Societal: Promote social equality by providing information about a specific group and the effects of past and present discrimination.

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Single-Group Studies

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Single-Group Studies

Based on C.E. Sleeter & C.A. Grant (2003). Making Choices for Multicultural Education (4th Ed.)

Goals & Rationale

  • Societal:

    • Promote social equality by providing information about a specific group and the effects of past and present discrimination.

    • Empower specific oppressed group.

  • Educational:

    • Create curriculum that counterbalances that which is traditionally White, middle-class male dominated.

Philosophical Framework

  • Myth of the Neutrality of Education

    • Many believe that education is neutral and free of bias.

    • Schooling is a social process.

      • Related to social & political history, beliefs & ideals.

    • Lack of resources need to be considered in relation to access to resources.

Philosophical Framework

Perspectives about Inequalities (pp. 119)

Philosophical Framework

  • Myth of the Neutrality of Education

    • Democracy and cultural allegiance paradox

      • Students are encouraged to examine issues

      • Information is limited to select groups

  • Social Purpose of Schooling

    • “Schools have a daily impact on students and prepare them for the roles they will have as adults.” (pp. 123)

Philosophical Framework

  • Social Purpose of Schooling

    • Social control by influencing attitudes and modifying behavior.

      • Helps students fit into cultural and social tradition

    • Schools become sorting machines

    • Schools help in identity development

      • Identity for dominant and oppressed group members can move towards social change

Dominant Group

Encapsulation: Comfortable with status quo; other groups’ experiences and perspectives unseen; accepts stereotypes.

Disintegration: Evidence of discrimination clashes with previous perspective- feels guilt and/or anger.

Reintegration: Resolves discomfort by returning as close as possible to encapsulation.

Pseudo-independence: Resolves discomfort by seeking information about and/or coming into contact with other groups; establishes identity with others.

Autonomy: Works to end discrimination against oppressed groups; positive identity with own group but does not accept superior status.

Philosophical Framework: Stages of Identity Development (pp. 125)

Oppressed Group

Conformity: Identify with dominant group and its version of society; accept negative image of own group.

Dissonance: Evidence of discrimination clashes with previous perspectives; causes confusion; seeks knowledge.

Resistance & immersion: Actively reject dominant society & beliefs; thirst for knowledge about own group.

Internalization: Strong positive identity with own group; willing to connect with dominant group but not with subordinate status.

Commitment: Committed to work against discrimination; strong positive identity with own group; willing to work with dominant group members at autonomous stage.

Philosophical Framework: Stages of Identity Development (pp. 125)

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”


    • The works of knowledge that holds cultural capitol in a society.

      • Literary works (The Odyssey)

      • Philosophical, political, & religious texts (The Bible, The Gettysburg Address)

      • History (mainstream)

    • The question becomes, “Who has the right to determine what should become part of the Canon?”

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • How can the Canon be reworked?

    • Each group can come from different perspectives.

  • Centering: When does their history begin?

    • The history of most groups are determined by those in power. The historical starting point tends to be when it impacts dominant group.

    • All groups have a history before that point.

    • Single-group studies help determine when history starts.

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • Social creation of “Natural” categories.

    • Certain traits and characteristics are viewed as biological and therefore natural (gender, race).

    • Certain traits assigned to certain groups are social constructs (skin color tied to intelligence, women and math).

    • Single-group studies examine why “natural” categories exist and how they can be changed.

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • Social construct of social theories.

    • Research is viewed as neutral and therefore provides us with the objective truth.

    • Western thought has a particular lense for viewing world and theories correspond to such lenses.

    • Other world views provide different lenses. (Egypt contributed to the development of Greek thought.)

    • Single-group theory provides other possibilities.

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • The strength of oppressed groups.

    • Mainstream media tend to portray oppressed groups as weak and accepting.

    • Single-group studies provide oppressed group with understanding of group strengths.

      • Less willing to accept oppressive conditions.

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • Group identity in the literature and the arts

    • The identity of minority groups, as portrayed in the media, often justify the social position held by such groups.

    • Single-group studies encourages and promotes development of authentic representation in the literature and the arts.

Restructuring Knowledge and “The Canon.”

  • A Collective Sense

    • Social change occurs when an oppressed group comes together as a group and work together.

      • Can be difficult in helping members of group see collective needs

      • Difficult to maintain over time

  • Group Liberation

    • Oppressed groups regain control of group history.

      • Those with wealth and control are seen as helping all

      • Those from oppressed groups present history from their perspectives

Recommended Practices

  • Curriculum: Creates knowledge that encourages understanding and social change in relation to single-group.

    • Must not come from dominant group perspective.

      • It becomes viewed as an individual choice, not collective matter.

      • It focuses on superficial aspects of group such as customs, foods, and holidays

Recommended Practices

  • Curriculum: Includes history of group from their perspective.

    • It begins before becoming part of dominant group history.

    • It includes aspects of history that present conflicts and change.

    • It provides heroes and heroines from group perspective.

    • It includes writers and artists from group.

    • Philosophical world views are included.

    • Contemporary struggles are addressed.

Recommended Practices

  • Implementation: How will the program come together?

    • Separate curricular area: Development of Ethnic Studies type courses.

      • Allows for focused study of group.

    • Integrated into mainstream: Includes minority histories and experiences into the mainstream.

      • Could make groups even more marginal due to lack of “center.”

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