Age-Dating of Earth
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Relative age dating العمر النسبى It could be done by the following: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Age-Dating of Earth تقدير عمر الأرض. Relative age dating العمر النسبى It could be done by the following: a) Principle of superposition---Initial horizontality: In normal geologic section, the oldest bed is at the bottom and the younger one is at the top, when there is no deformation.

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Relative age dating العمر النسبى It could be done by the following:

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Relative age dating it could be done by the following

Age-Dating of Earth تقدير عمر الأرض

  • Relative age dating العمر النسبى

  • It could be done by the following:

  • a) Principle of superposition---Initial horizontality: In normal geologic section, the oldest bed is at the bottom and the younger one is at the top, when there is no deformation.

  • b) Correlation by faunal contents, rock type or marker bed (datum surface).

  • Each bed (rock unit) has distinct and unique fauna and flora, unlike those above or below. By tracing these fossils across a country, it is possible to recognize contemporaneous deposits and piece together the scattered fragments of the record and place them in proper sequence


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

Lithologic and faunal correlation of Lower Cretaceous rocks in northern Sinai, Egypt


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

  • Principles of inclusions and cross-cutting relationship:

  • “The cutting rock is younger than the one that has been cut”

  • d) Paleomagnetic signature:

  • Absolute age dating العمر المطلق

  • Early attempts for absolute age dating have used the following:

  • a) Rate of sedimentation

  • Age =

  • Thickness of geologic column is averaging: 100 000 to 300 000 mile

  • Rate of sedimentation is averaging: 30 cm/ 100 yrs to 3 cm/ 8000 yrs, so the Earth’s Age is averaging: 3 myrs to 1.6 byrs


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

Varved layers (clay and silt) deposit yearly in lakes. Also, organic-rich layers deposits also yearly in the oceans. Thus, counting of these layers gives the absolute age of these layers.

Using rate of sedimentation in age dating is not reliable:

1) because the rate of sedimentation is not constant from place to another. There is deposition of sediments in places and while at others the deposition ceases.

2) Erosion


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

b) Salinity of the Ocean:

Age =

When we use the above formula, we should assume that primitive oceans were not salty----Na Cl produced by weathering of the earth’s crust-----rate of adding salt to the oceans is in yearly average for all the geologic time.

Thus, it was estimated that (In 1899) age of the ocean equal 100 000 000 yrs


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

This method is reasonable, but it is not completely satisfactory because some salt produced from the sedimentary rocks rather than from the mother rocks (igneous and metamorphic), and millions of tons of salt extract from the ocean to be used in the industry.

c) Temperature:

Lord Kelvin (1897) estimated the age of the earth of about 24 to 40 Myrs, based on the assumption that the earth has been gradually cooling down from an original molten conditions.


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

d- Radioactive isotopes

(Radioactive Chronometer)

  • This method based on the isotopes of the element.

  • Atom consists of :  clouds of electrons –ve charge

  •  Protons +ve charge

  •  neutrons no charge

  • No. of protons gives the Atomic Number of the element, where as No. of protons + neutrons gives its Atomic Weight.

  • Example: Hydrogen has only one proton---Thus its mass= 1

  • Carbon has 6 protons+ 6 neutrons----its mass= 12

  • In nature Carbon has three isotopes 12C, 13C and 14C. The only radioactive carbon isotope is Carbon 14. It is generated in upper layers of the atmosphere when neutrons from sun radiations hit nitrogen-14 atoms and transform them to Carbon 14.


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

  • Animals and plants in the oceans and on land get their carbon from carbon dioxide in the air. So, when these creatures die is possible to determine the amount of Carbon 14 left in their shells/bodies. C14 half life equals 5730 years.

Carbon 14 formation, the diagram from

http://vcourseware.calstatela.edu/VirtualDating


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

  • Some heavy elements such as Uranium, Thorium-232, Rubidium-87, Potassium-40 and Samarium-147are radioactive, emitting radiations.

  • Uraniumhas 92 protons + 146 neutrons. Thus its atomic mass = 238. In nature Uranium has two isotopes 235U and 238U.

  • Some of these isotopes are not stable emitting energy (radiations):  Gamma rays () (= x-rays)

  • Alpha particles ()

  •  Beta particles ()

  • So, these isotopes will become stable after a certain time, transforming into another elements. This process is known as Radioactivity. Rate of radioactivity is definite for each unstable elements and commonly expressed as “Half Life”.


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

  • Half Life= length of time that is required for any unstable elements (isotopes) to be diminished by half.------------How do we know it? See first this diagram and table in the next slide.

Transforming of 235U (unstable isotope) into 207Pb (stable element) with time (t)


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

Half life is now known for certain elements see the following table:


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

To know how to determine the half-life of radioactive isotopes, follow the dating by Uranium/Lead Ratio:

The mathematical expression that relates radioactive decay to geologic time is called the age equation and is:


Relative age dating it could be done by the following

Example: By knowing the rate of disintegration of 235U into 207Pb in 1 yrs.

It is found that one g 235U1/7600 000 000 g 207Pb

Thus, in t yrs x 235U g/ 7600 000 000 = 207Pb

t yrs = x 7600 000 000

When Lead/Uranium Ratio in Uraninite rock = 0.050

t (age of rock) = 0.050 x 7600 000 000 = 380 000 000 yrs


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