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Corpus Linguistics: Introduction. Stella E. O. Tagnin - USP Corpus Linguistics, Translation and Terminology New Technologies in Translation - CAPES Universitat Rovira i Virgili - Universidade de São Paulo Tarragona June 9-10, 2009. Outline. What is Corpus Linguistics Types of corpora

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Corpus linguistics introduction

Corpus Linguistics: Introduction

Stella E. O. Tagnin - USP

Corpus Linguistics, Translation and Terminology

New Technologies in Translation - CAPES

Universitat Rovira i Virgili - Universidade de São Paulo

Tarragona

June 9-10, 2009


Outline

Outline

  • What is Corpus Linguistics

  • Types of corpora

  • Corpus Tools

  • Translating with Corpora


Corpus linguistics as an approach and as a methodology

Corpus Linguistics as an approachand as a methodology

  • It is not just instrumental, i.e. a set of tools

  • It is a typical way of applying a set of theoretical presuppositions (Berber Sardinha 2000)

  • Approach: new theoretical concepts

    • Lexicon: collocations –patterns; “idiom principle”

    • Discovery procedures: Sinclair (2004): “trust the text” – no a priori categorization

    • Probability: Halliday (1991)


Basically

Basically

Corpus Linguistics =

Observation of natural language

- use -

as opposed to Chomky´s introspection

- grammar -


What is the difference

Firth/Halliday

Performance

Linguistic description

Empirical

Observation - use

Probability

Chomsky

Competence

Linguistic universals

Rational

Intuition - introspection

Possibility

What is the difference?


Can i say this

Can I say this?

Yes, you can but...

... it’s just not the way we say it!


What is a corpus

What is a corpus?

1 formal a collection of writings, for example

all the writings of one person

2 linguistics a collection of written and

spoken language stored on computer

and used for language research

and writing dictionaries.

Macmillan English Dictionary (2002)


Corpus linguistics introduction

But

texts compiled according to specific criteria

collection should be representative

of language to be studied

or part of language to be studied


Corpus linguist vs armchair linguist

Corpus linguist vs armchair linguist

  • “... I don’t think there can be any corpora, however large, that contain information about all of the areas of English lexicon and grammar that I want to explore...”


Corpus linguistics introduction

But...

“... Every corpus [...] however small, has taught me facts that I couldn’t imagine finding out about in any other way.”

(Fillmore, C.J. “Corpus linguistics” or “Computer-aided armchair linguistics”. In Svartvik, Jan (ed.) Directions in Corpus Linguistics, Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm, 4-8 August 1991, Berlin/NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992, 35-60)


Research areas

Research Areas

Lexicology and lexicography

  • Lexicology

  • Lexicography

    Contrastive studies

  • Translation

  • Naturalness in language


Research areas in translation

Research Areas in Translation

  • Normalization/ Simplification/ Explicitation

  • Translation strategies

  • Translation norms

  • Translator training

  • Reference sources


The history of corpora

The History of Corpora

  • In the 60’s – 1 million words!

  • Brown – American English

    • 200 texts – 5,000 words each

    • 15 distinct categories

  • LOB (Lancaster/Oslo/Bergen) – British English counterpart


Current corpora

Current corpora

  • BNC – 1995 – 100 million words

    • 90% written language

    • 10% spoken language

  • Bank of English (Cobuild)

    • Birmingham 1987 – 20 million words

    • Today around 500 million words

    • Open corpus – constantly being updated

  • ... and more later on


Corpus based dictionaries

Corpus-based dictionaries

  • Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.), 1989

  • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1980s)

  • Macmillan English Dictionary (2002)


Some useful sites

Some useful sites

  • Corpus Linguistics:

    http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/

  • Text Corpora & Corpus Linguistics

    http://www.athel.com/corpus.html

  • David Lee’s Bookmarks for Corpus-based Linguists:

    http://devoted.to/corpora

    http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~davidlee/devotedtocorpora/CBLLinks.htm


Types of corpora

Types of corpora

  • General language

  • Specialized language

  • Learner: translator trainee

  • Monolingual, bi- ou multilingual

  • Parallel (COMPARA - CorTrad) or comparable (CorTec)


Types of corpora1

Types of corpora

  • online:BNC, Cobuild, COCA, WebCorp, Lácio-Web

  • Comet

    • CorTec – CorTrad - CoMAprend

  • DIY – customized: always at hand


What are corpora good for

What are corpora good for?

  • Language description

    • lexicon

    • grammar

  • Teaching: DDL (data-driven learning)

  • Translation / Terminology


What s in a word michael hoey

What's in a word?Michael Hoey

5 questions to be asked about a word:

  • What does the word mean? Meaning

  • What words does it associate with? Collocations

  • What meanings does it associate with? Semantic prosody

  • What grammatical functions does it associate with?

  • What positions in the text does the word favour?


Corpora allow us to

Corpora allow us to

Visualize lexical patterns –

“the way we say it”

concordances

  • Phraseological (collocations): sweeping victory, high and low > search high and low, pay a visit

  • Terminological: profit and loss, quality control, freshly ground black pepper

     Compile dictionaries and glossaries


Corpora allow us to1

Corpora allow us to

  • Visualize grammatical patterns

    • colligations: verbs followed by infinitive or gerund

      begin + to vs. start + -ing

  • Detect semantic prosody:

    cause vs causar

    habit vs hábito


How are corpora exploited

How are corpora exploited?

Search tools

  • online corpora have built-in search tools

  • DIY corpora need stand-alone search tools: WordSmith Tools 5 (Mike Scott 2007)

  • http://www.lexically.net/wordsmith/

  • AntConc 3.2.2

  • http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/antconc_index.html


Query tools produce

Query tools produce

  • Concordances

    • Collocates

    • Clusters

  • Word Lists

  • Keyword lists

  • Statistical data


What is a concordance

What is a concordance?

  • A list of all occurrences of the search word in context

  • KWIC: “key word in context” –

    • Usually centralized

  • Vertical reading: to identify lexical and grammatical patterns

  • Horizontal reading: to identify collocates and different meanings


Corpus linguistics introduction

now is a time to

look

at the other side of

the style I want?" Well,

look

no further. I, Adam Polselli

on in and take a "

look

," literally! Be on the lookout

update is a brand new

look

that I call "Chic Simplicity

call "Chic Simplicity." This new

look

was inspired by the outdated

Centre is opposite Coral Reef -

look

out for the brown signs

homepage trn: How not to

look

like an idiot on Usenet

you want to do is

look

like an idiot or be

group.name or take a

look

at news.answers. If you

careful of advertising. Take a

look

at `trn: How to advertise

Service Pack 2 Beta first

look

by Kurt Hutchinson A

harder

look

at after-school help By Lisa

in the take a closer

look

page for several weeks. My

for several weeks. My students

look

forward to the picture each

Friday March 5, 2004 Hey

look

, it's a new comic. That's

seen it yet, take a

look

. The new aqua appearance is

A concordance for look


Corpus linguistics introduction

now is a time to

look

at the other side of

the style I want?" Well,

look

no further. I, Adam Polselli

on in and take a "

look

," literally! Be on the lookout

update is a brand new

look

that I call "Chic Simplicity

call "Chic Simplicity." This new

look

was inspired by the outdated

Centre is opposite Coral Reef -

look

out for the brown signs

homepage trn: How not to

look

like an idiot on Usenet

you want to do is

look

like an idiot or be

group.name or take a

look

at news.answers. If you

careful of advertising. Take a

look

at `trn: How to advertise

Service Pack 2 Beta first

look

by Kurt Hutchinson A

harder

look

at after-school help By Lisa

in the take a closer

look

page for several weeks. My

for several weeks. My students

look

forward to the picture each

Friday March 5, 2004 Hey

look

, it's a new comic. That's

seen it yet, take a

look

. The new aqua appearance is

Vertical reading – right side


Corpus linguistics introduction

now is a time to

look

at the other side of

the style I want?" Well,

look

no further. I, Adam Polselli

on in and takea "

look

," literally! Be on the lookout

update is a brandnew

look

that I call "Chic Simplicity

call "Chic Simplicity." This new

look

was inspired by the outdated

Centre is opposite Coral Reef -

look

out for the brown signs

homepage trn: How not to

look

like an idiot on Usenet

you want to do is

look

like an idiot or be

group.name or takea

look

at news.answers. If you

careful of advertising. Takea

look

at `trn: How to advertise

Service Pack 2 Beta first

look

by Kurt Hutchinson A

harder

look

at after-school help By Lisa

in the take acloser

look

page for several weeks. My

for several weeks. My students

look

forward to the picture each

Friday March 5, 2004 Hey

look

, it's a new comic. That's

seen it yet, takea

look

. The new aqua appearance is

Vertical reading – left side


Corpus linguistics introduction

now is a time to

look

at the other side of

the style I want?" Well,

look

no further. I, Adam Polselli

on in and take a "

look

," literally! Be on the lookout

update is a brandnew

look

that I call "Chic Simplicity

call "Chic Simplicity." This new

look

was inspired by the outdated

Centre is opposite Coral Reef -

look

out for the brown signs

homepage trn: How not to

look

like an idiot on Usenet

you want to do is

look

like an idiot or be

group.name or take a

look

at news.answers. If you

careful of advertising. Take a

look

at `trn: How to advertise

Service Pack 2 Beta first

look

by Kurt Hutchinson A

harder

look

at after-school help By Lisa

in the takea closer

look

page for several weeks. My

for several weeks. My students

look

forward to the picture each

Friday March 5, 2004 Hey

look

, it's a new comic. That's

seen it yet, take a

look

. The new aqua appearance is

Horizontal reading


Corpus linguistics introduction

Semantic Prosody


Corpus linguistics introduction

family thinks Vicki Rock's former job at the plant caused her son's cancer.

but he denies that the plant caused leukemia in families that have brought suits against the company

One of two things could have caused this error: The Pobox.com user whose web site you

Ok: BM caused TONS of problems over last few weeks…31: Holes that caused fuel leak on shuttle located in nozzle July 28: Columbia

reduce deaths, injuries, property damage, economic losses and human sufferingcaused by natural disasters.


Corpus linguistics introduction

ventos mais fortes do oeste e aumento de tempestades violentas, causou danos sem precedentes nas propriedades situadas na costa de 1992 na região central dos Estados Unidos. Por isso,

causou grande impacto a descoberta do oceanógrafo americano Dudley Chelton

membro do conselho executivo deve fazer é "A nossa empresa causou uma primeira boa impressão em consumidores potenciais suficientes para garantir

de 1995, quando já assumira a presidência do Banco Central, causou repercussão na imprensa o fato de ter passado o carnaval fato teve não teve a repercussão equivalente ao prejuízo que causou a centenas de empresas que hoje dependem prioritariamente da rede


Cause vs causar

Cause vs. causar

  • Cause: negative semantic prosody

  • Causar: neutral semantic prosody

  • Therefore:

    *cause a good impression 

    make a good impression

    Attention translator: cognates don´t always work the same way!!!


Corpus linguistics introduction

To distinguish between

near synonyms


Corpus linguistics introduction

Small

Here is a random selection of 50 solutions from the43118 found...

A6F 4 ... only a small number provide an outcome in which one party forms the government.

AN4 2149 This would include skilled workers as well as unskilled, small tenant farmers and other rural cottagers, servants in husbandry as well as lower domestic servants, some small traders, ...

ARB 1868 I seem to be a permanent figure in this small town, ...

BNL 2040 You ought to be able to cope with a small invasion of your privacy now and then.

C93 1122 Meetings, rallies, dances and wedding receptions all brought the small communities together.

CDM 232 It was a small, battered tin money-box.

CHA 2807 The Discman , a small, portable CD player , makes its debut.

CHJ 805 A small porch at the rear can be used for other small items, although access is only from inside.

EVW 1075 It is divided into two small widely separated lobes which are attached to the dorsal lobe ...

H7R 493 When a VCID is used the total motor/load inertia includes the damper housing inertia and therefore it is important that this inertia be as small as possible.

H7X 486 But if you read the small print of the viral RNA you will find something devilish written there.

HA3 118 Then he stiffened as if sandbagged by a sudden recollection, gave a small yelp of terror and dashed into the gloom.

HA9 987 Cup in hand, she was about to sit opposite him at the small kitchen table, ...

HGW 1206 You can often use the space between the bottom of wall-hung cabinets and the counter top to put up small shelves which will take a variety of objects; this is often a good place to stand your collection of dried herbs in small pots or jars ...

HHX 4302 Others do it on a very small scale.

HLY 118 I there is a small difference of course, the C E C did say it, but there is dif different negotiating...

KCE 5245 how small Andrew's hands are.


Small summary

Small - summary

  • Subjective:, smalltrader (4sg +19pl), smallinvasion (1)

  • Objective: small community, small box (53), small kitchen table

  • Abstract words: small difference, small scale

  • Collocations: small number (925), small print(158), small town (293)


Corpus linguistics introduction

little

Here is a random selection of 50 solutions from the62638 found...

A0V 816 It is a little sad to see the innocent eagerness and enthusiasm from so many who have stars in their eyes and really believe they are quite good players.

A6E 1372 The room was full of funny little animals whizzing all over the floor.

AB4 621 In 1670 William Gauntlett took out a patent of arms at the Herald's College and in 1687 made the manor a little larger.

ACE 1266 You're making puerile excuses for yourself, little lad.';

ADK 1755 We stapled a piece of blue baize around the door and, hey presto, there was a neat little portable platform which we could produce when the time came, looking incredibly efficient.

AMN 165 ... but for those with some imagination and a little technical knowledge [it is] a site full of wonder ...

AP1 1595 I spoke to David on the phone yesterday and he, too, has been able to do very little because of not being able to get into Tim's program...

APU 1389 Anyway, so what if there were people smoking a little --; everybody does it, ...

CBC 2794 With a little advance preparation, though, you can ensure you have time to relax and enjoy Christmas morning.

CEH 60 A shifty-eyed little devil, and his wife always expecting.

CHG 433 He was a short, precise man with a small moustache which reminded me a little of Hitler's, but he had none of the German leader's belligerence.

EBT 1978 Yet serious research into the history of textiles goes back little more than a century.

EFU 802 The next point is that the special rennet that professional cheese-making demands is available only in bulk, and therefore --; since only a teaspoonful or so per half-gallon of milk is required --; of little use for making cheese at home.

F9Y 742 ... Sydney Newman saw little of Doctor Who after the pilot episodes had been approved ...


Little summary

Little - summary

  • Physical: little animals

  • Quantifier – a little: a little sad; a little technical knowledge, smoking a little

  • Affective: little lad, little devil (31)

  • little portable platform???  a neat little portable platform


Corpus linguistics introduction

Neat little vs neat small

Your query was neat little - Here is a random selection of 50 solutions from the 57found...

A5R 281 `;Boots and Sainsburys selling heroin and cocaine in neat little packets with helpful little leaflets ...

A61 478 I replaced the blanket over his head and stood for a few moments looking at the bodies in their neat little rows.

B73 2303 It may even be possible to make neat little `;scale-model'; houses from normal wood, transport them cheaply ...

BN3 119 She was a neatlittle blonde, five years my senior, and perpetually smelling of eau de cologne and cheap powder.

CCN 1538 On some coals drawn to the side of the neat little fire, strips of meat were laid to grill: ...

CDY 66 Billy's cottage was set back off the road, behind a neat little hedge.

CH1 3157 In every Kinder Surprise you will already find one of 100 neat little toys, easy-to-assemble kits featuring locos, cars, ...

CH5 4355 Men find her trim figure and neatlittle face with its impossibly turned-up nose, very appealing.

ECG 1398 His beloved's in Sheffield and he can't wait to sell his house (any takers for a neat little cottage in Cwm y Glo?) and ...

ECU 2424 He opened one of the suitcases and took out an expensive tape recorder and a neat little package of cassettes.

EFU 988 Then, the neat little white pots, the crust of yellow butter, there is something fundamentally and uniquely English ...

FPU 1382 Biddy, in her neatlittle black dress, was busy serving food.

G00 4306 ... isolate the various segments of the electronic publishing industry into neat little compartments.

H7H 454 Next: here comes Dada, neat little Dada, small as a doll on one of his big horses, ...

H97 2166 `;Meaning,'; she continued, `;that your neatlittle theory that I'm the obvious suspect is actually pretty hollow…';

HA4 1623 Down in the neat little kitchen Sophia made an omelette, cut thin bread and butter and arranged ...

HAC 10328 The neat little track ball mouse built into the keyboard is a joy to use ...

HR7 2306 Harvey was there in a red-coat uniform, smiling and doing his neat little dances and pretending to drop plates ...

JY3 1073 `;I've got a neat little ketch moored down at the marina.

JY3 1143 `;She's a neatlittle boat,'; she commented coolly, accepting a long glass of orange juice and fizzy mineral water.

JY5 2338 `;Since unlike you I don't make a habit of placing people in neat little labelled categories.';

K2N 207 THE Rev. Martin Smyth, MP, has been telling me of a neat little trick pulled by local people to have houses built ...

neat small - Only 2solutions found for this query

BP9 85 The head waiter, head steward, chief service attendant, whatever one called him, was a neat small Frenchman named Emil.

G23 578 Just fold a square of white paper into four and cut neat small triangles in the folded edges.


Neat little vs small little

Neat little vs small little

  • Neat little: 57 occurrences

    • Little – connotative (affective, informal)

  • Small little: 2 occurrences

    • Small – denotative: neat small Frenchman; neat small triangles


Making a long story short

Making a long story short...

  • Corpus linguistics is ideal for studying conventionality/phraseology: the way we say it!

  • Knowing conventionality/phraseology makes for naturalness and fluency

  • Corpus linguistics enhances translators’ linguistic awareness and fosters independent study by discovery


Online corpora english

Online Corpora English

  • BNC:http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html

    http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/

  • COBUILD:http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx

  • WebCorp:http://www.webcorp.org.uk

  • COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English):

    http://www.americancorpus.org/


Online corpora portuguese

Online Corpora Portuguese

  • COMPARA:

    http://www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA

  • Lácio-Web:

    http://www.nilc.icmc.usp.br/lacioweb

  • COMET – Corpus Multilingue para Ensino e Tradução

    http://fflch.usp.br/dlm/comet


Online corpus spanish

Online Corpus Spanish

  • CREA - Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual -Real Academia Española

    http://corpus.rae.es/creanet.html


Query tools

Query Tools

WordSmith Tools


Wordlist

Wordlist

  • Identification of topic

  • Most reccurent words in text / corpus


Corpus linguistics introduction

WordList by Frequency


Corpus linguistics introduction

WordList in

Alphabetical Order


Corpus linguistics introduction

WordList in

Alphabetical Order

“lemmatized”


Wordlist statistics

WordList - Statistics

Identification of peculiarities

  • corpus (Overall)

  • each text in the corpus


Comparison of 2 wordlists

Comparison of 2 WordLists

  • Words which have positive keyness (vocabulary of text)

  • Words which have negative keyness (vocabulary which does NOT occur in text)


Corpus linguistics introduction

Key-Words

Study corpus

vs

Reference corpus


Identification of prevailing vocabulary

Identification of prevailing vocabulary

  • By frequency


Compiling a glossary

Compiling a Glossary

Selecting Terms

  • Keywords

  • Clusters – combinations (statistical)


Corpus linguistics introduction

3-word clusters


Corpus linguistics introduction

2-4

clusters


Corpus linguistics introduction

Translating with corpora


Translational equivalence

Translational equivalence

  • Functional equivalents

    • marcar um gol


In short

In short

  • A corpus will allow you to identify the

    most probable term

    - not just a possible term!


Uses of a parallel corpus

Uses of a parallel corpus

COMPARA (www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA)

  • Excerpts of literary texts

  • Originals and translations

  • Portuguese: Brazil, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola

  • English: USA, UK, South Africa


Translation strategies

Translation strategies

Synonyms for often used words

The case of “then”


Corpus linguistics introduction

Then  Então – Aí –- Depois

EBDL1T1(193): There was another long journey through more corridors -- thensuddenly everything changed.

Seguiu-se outra longa viagem ao longo de mais corredores, até que, de repente, tudo mudou.

EBDL1T1(294): But thenneither of them seemed to go with the shirt I was wearing, so I had to change that.

Masdepois achei que nem uma nem outra ficavam bem com a camisa que tinha vestida e tive de pôr uma terceira.

EBDL1T2(294): But then neither of them seemed to go with the shirt I was wearing, so I had to change that.

Masaí nenhuma das duas combinava com a camisa que estava usando, por isso tive de trocá-la.

EBDL1T2(1159): I smiled at the thought, then felt a bit of a bastard for smiling. Sorri com esse pensamento, depoisme senti um pouco canalha por estar rindo.

EBDL2(284): `Who was the clock radio for,then?´

-- Então para quem era o rádio-despertador?

EBDL2(297): `Perhaps one of the boys would like it, then.´

-- Nesse caso, talvez um dos rapazes o queira.


Corpus linguistics introduction

Cultural words: cachaça


Corpus linguistics introduction

Cachaça in the COMPARA


Corpus linguistics introduction

Cachaça in the COMPARA


Corpus linguistics introduction

Pinga in the COMPARA


Contrastive analysis

Contrastive Analysis

Peculiarities of each language


Corpus linguistics introduction

EBDL1T2(240):

«Well, frankly old bean, I'm baffled,» he said.

-- Bem, francamente, meu velho camarada, estou surpreso --disseele.

EBDL1T2(247):

«Particularly for me,» I said.

-- Principalmente para mim.

EBDL1T2(167):

«Got a smoke on you?» said the nurse.

-- Tem um cigarro aí? -- perguntou a enfermeira.

EBDL1T2(98):

«Ward 3J,» I said.

«Ala 3J», respondi.

EBDL1T2(319):

She said, «When I don't feel the need to see Karl any more.»

Respondeu, «Quando eu não sentir mais necessidade de ver Karl».

EBDL1T2(357):

«Pathological?» she said.

-- Patológica? -- perguntou ela.

EBDL1T2(914):

«But I am writing,» I said.

-- Mas estou escrevendo -- retruquei.

EBDL1T2(1053):

«This doesn't affect Rhoda, believe me,» he said earnestly.

-- Isso não tem nada a ver com Rhoda, acredite em mim.

EBDL1T2(1660):

I said I could.

Respondi que sim.

EBDL1T2(1728):

«I won’t stop, thanks,» she said.

Obrigada, mas não vou ficar -- agradeceu.

The case of “said”


Said vs disse

Said vs. Disse


Diy corpora

DIY Corpora

  • Construction depends on purpose of research

  • Corpus tools: Wordsmith Tools (Scott 1996)


Advantages of a diy corpus

Advantages of a DIY Corpus

  • Up-to-date

  • Reliable

  • Wealth of information

    • lexical

    • syntactic

    • contextual

    • discursive/textual

  • User becomes familiar with the topic

  • Easy to investigate


Wrapping up

Wrapping up

CL lets you

  • handle a large quantity of data/text at the same time;

  • identify different kinds of patterns;

  • identify relevant vocabulary;

  • extract technical terms from a corpus;

  • compile terminological glossaries;

  • find translational equivalents both in a comparable and in a parallel corpus;

  • analyze translation strategies in a parallel corpus;

  • analyze literary texts as well as others;

  • evaluate translations in a parallel corpus

  • and whatever else the researcher can come up with...


Some references

Some references

  • Berber Sardinha, T. Lingüística de Corpus: Histórico e Problemática, São Paulo: DELTA vol.16 no.2, 2000. (http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0102-44502000000200005&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt)

  • Halliday, M.A.K. Corpus studies and probabilistic grammar. In KarimAijmer & Bengt Altenberg (Eds.) English Corpus Linguistics - Studies in honor of Jan Svartvik, London: Longman, 1991, 30-43.

  • Gonçalves, Lourdes Bernardes. DUBLINERS SOB A LUPA DA LINGÜÍSTICA DE CORPUS: Uma contribuição para a análise e a avaliação da tradução literária, 2006.

  • Johns, Tim. 'From Printout to Handout: Grammar and Vocabulary Teaching in the Context of Data- driven Learning', CALL Austria 10, pp. 14-34. 1990

  • Johns, Tim. Should you be persuaded - two samples of data-driven learning materials. In Johns and King (eds.) Classroom Concordancing (Birmingham University: English Language Research Journal 4). 1-13. 1991.

  • Sinclair, J. M. Trust the Text: Language, Corpus, and Discourse, London: Routledge, 2004.


Corpus linguistics introduction

Thank you

Stella

[email protected]


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