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Heads and complements. Kuiper and Allan Chapter 8.1.1. What are complements in general?. Complements include: objects direct indirect intensive complements They are required by the head to complete its meaning. Subcategories of heads.

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Heads and complements l.jpg

Heads and complements

Kuiper and Allan Chapter 8.1.1


What are complements in general l.jpg
What are complements in general?

  • Complements include:

    • objects

      • direct

      • indirect

    • intensive complements

    • They are required by the head to complete its meaning.


Subcategories of heads l.jpg
Subcategories of heads

  • Heads of phrase belong to subcategories on the basis of the kind of complements they take.

  • Transitive verbs take objects.

    • massage

  • Intransitive verbs do not.

    • sleep

  • Some verbs take double objects.

    • buy


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Verbs subcategorize for complementizers

  • Data

    • Max understood that Joanna had driven his sportscar.

    • *Max understood whether Joanna had driven his sportcar.

    • *Max didn't understand whether Joanna had driven his sportscar.

    • Max didn't know whether Joanna had driven his sportscar.


Complementizers subcategorize for the tense of their complement clause l.jpg
Complementizers subcategorize for the tense of their complement clause

  • Data

    • The committee intended for John to come.

    • The committee intended that John might come.

    • *The committee intended that John to come.

    • *The committee intended for John might come.


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Finite and non-finite clauses complement clause

  • Finite clauses are tensed, e.g. the contain either a modal auxiliary or past or present tense forms.

  • Non-finite clauses do not contain either a modal or past or present tense forms.

  • Non-finite clauses often have to in the place of tense.



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