CP1020 - Week 4

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CP1020 - Week 4. Making Decisions. ?. Decisions. Example:

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Making Decisions

?

### Decisions

Example:

Driving to a lecture you notice that you do not have much petrol left. You will need to fill up soon, and approaching you can see a petrol station. The price is reasonable, but you do not have a lot of time to spare, so don\'t want to have to queue to fill-up.

What would you do?

Yes

No!

Decisions in Problem Solving
• "If the queue at the petrol station is short then I will stop there to fill up"
• If (the queue at the petrol station is short)Then stop there and fill up

Decisions ...decisions..

You may decide:

"if the queue at the petrol station is short then I will stop there to fill up".

We could write the algorithm for this decision as:

Ifqueue at petrol station is short then

stop there and fill up

### Further Examples

ifkettle has boiled then

make tea

iftemperature less than 18 C.then

turn on central heating

### General form of IF statements

IF condition THEN

<action>

ENDIF

IF, THEN and ENDIF are RESERVED words

condition is the “test”, if the answer is YES then we carry out the <action>

### An example program

REM program : to demonstrate the IF statement

REM written by : S. Garner

REM date written 8/3/00

DIM iAge AS INTEGER

CLS \' clear the screen

REM test the condition

IF iAge > 17 THEN

PRINT "You may vote at the next election"

END IF

END

### Two way decisions

We frequently need to do either one thing or another, depending on some condition

Ifage is greater than 65 then

retire gracefully

else

keep working

IFconditionTHEN

<action1>

ELSE

<action2>

ENDIF

### Example program

REM program : to demonstrate the IF statement

DIM iMark AS INTEGER

CLS \' clear the screen

REM check mark for pass or fail

IF iMark < 40 THEN

PRINT "You have failed"

ELSE

PRINT "You have passed"

PRINT "Well Done!"

ENDIF

END

### Testing

We now have more than one possible “route” through our code

We must TEST each of these!

We should also test the “boundary”

### Test Data

Mark Expected Actual

Result Result

25 You have failed You have failed

60 You have passed You have passed

40 You have passed You have passed

39 You have failed You have failed

### The condition statement

Usually we check a value.

The symbols used are:

= equal<> not equal

< less than<= less than or equal

> greater than >= Greater than or equal

### Example Conditions

NOTE: Brackets help to clarify!

(iMark < 0)

(iAge >=18)

(iValueA = iValueB)

(iAge >= 16 AND iAge < 65)

More Complex Decisions 1
• Problem:You are looking for new employees for your company.One of the criteria is that the employee must be no younger than 16 and no older than 65.
• Note: We have two conditions to satisfy:
• condition 1 is the candidate at least 16 years old?
• condition 2 is the candidate no older than 65?
• Both condition 1ANDcondition 2must be satisfied "TRUE" in order to accept the candidate
More Complex Decisions 2
• Algorithm:Step1 Get age of candidate2If ( age at least 16) AND (age less than 65 )2.1Then candidate is eligible2.2Else reject candidate
• AND implies thatbothconditions must be true
The code

INPUT“How old is the candidate > ”; iCandidatesAge

If (iCandidatesAge >= 16) And (iCandidatesAge <= 65)Then

Print “You are eligible to apply”

Else

Print “You are outside the age range!”

End If

The OR condition
• Alternatively test for ineligible candidates:Step1 Get age of candidate2If ( age less than 16) OR (age greater than 65 )2.1Then reject candidate2.2Else candidate is eligible
• OR implies that either one (or both) of the conditions needs to be satisfied

### Another Example

REM program : to demonstrate the IF statement

REM written by : I Coulson

REM date written: 8/3/00

DIM iCandAge AS INTEGER

CLS \' clear the screen

IF ( iCandAge < 16) OR ( iCandAge > 65) THEN

PRINT ”Sorry you are outside the age range"

ELSE

PRINT “You are eligible to apply”

END IF

END

• When a piece of work is marked, it is given a percentage mark which needs converting to a FAIL, PASS, MERIT or DISTINCTION.
• A Fail Upto 40
• A Pass 40 - 59
• A Merit 60 - 79
• A Distinction 80 +
• Algorithm:Step1 Get a student\'s mark

2If (mark is greater than 0) AND (mark less than 40)2.1 Then Grade is Fail

3If (mark greater than or equal to 40) AND (mark is less than 60)3.1 Then Grade is Pass

4If (mark is greater or equal to 60) AND (mark less than 80)4.1 Then Grade is Merit

5If (mark is greater or equal to 80) AND (mark is no more than 100)5.1 Then Grade is Distinction

Mark to Grade Conversion Improved Algorithm
• Further improved algorithm:Step1 Get a student\'s mark

2If (mark is less than 40%)2.1 Then Grade is Fail2.2 ElseIf (mark is less than 60%)2.2.1 Then Grade is Pass2.2.2 Else If (mark is less than 80%)2.2.2.1 Then Grade is Merit2.2.2.2 Else Grade is Distinction

• This is known as nesting decisions
The Program

Rem Author I Coulson

DIM iPercentage AS INTEGER

INPUT ”What percentage did you get "; iPercentage

IF iPercentage < 40 THEN

Print “Fail”

ELSEIF iPercentage < 60 THEN

Print “Pass”

ELSEIF iPercentage < 80 THEN

Print “Merit”

ELSEIF iPercentage >= 80 THEN

Print “Distinction”

END IF

Questions

1 Write an algorithm to decide if a salesman should get a bonus - he needs to have sold at least £3000 worth of goods in the month.

2 Alter the algorithm such that that the salesman earns 15% commission on all sales if sells more than £3000 worth of goods in a month, but only 5% if he sells less than that.

3 Write the code to print the appropriate comment to a runner finishing a race:

1st place - “well done you are the winner”

2nd place - “congratulations you are runner up”

3rd place - “good, you have finished third”

unplaced - “You’ve finished, well done”