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Chapter 2 Linux Installation and Usage. CompTIA Linux+ Certification. Objectives. Install Red Hat Fedora Linux using good practices Outline the structure of the Linux interface Enter basic shell commands and find command documentation Properly shut down the Linux operating system.

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Chapter 2 linux installation and usage

Chapter 2

Linux Installation and Usage

CompTIA Linux+ Certification


Objectives

Objectives

  • Install Red Hat Fedora Linux using good practices

  • Outline the structure of the Linux interface

  • Enter basic shell commands and find command documentation

  • Properly shut down the Linux operating system

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Installing linux preparing for installation

Installing Linux: Preparing for Installation

  • All OSs require a minimum set of hardware components to function properly

    • Can be obtained from manual or file in DVD of OS, or from vendor website

  • Each individual hardware component should be checked against the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) found on the vendor’s Web site

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Installing linux preparing for installation continued

Installing Linux: Preparing for Installation (continued)

Table 2-1 Fedora 13 hardware requirements

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Installing linux preparing for installation continued1

Installing Linux: Preparing for Installation (continued)

  • Need to identify software that will be used in the Linux operating system

    • Computer’s host name

    • Network configuration parameters

    • Specific software packages to be installed

  • Create preinstallation checklist to document hardware and software information

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Comptia linux certification

Table 2-2 Sample preinstallation checklist

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Installing linux installation methods

Installing Linux: Installation Methods

  • DVD media

  • FTP server

  • HTTP Web server

  • NFS server

  • SMB server

  • Packages on hard disk

  • CD-ROM media

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Starting the installation and checking media for errors

Starting the Installation and Checking Media for Errors

  • Boot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux DVD

  • A Welcome screen is displayed, can select option:

    • Default graphical installation

    • Installation with basic video driver

    • Rescue installed items

    • Boot from local drive

    • Memory test

  • Check media for errors prior to installation

    • Optional, but recommended

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Starting the installation and checking media for errors continued

Starting the Installation and Checking Media for Errors (continued)

Figure 2-1: Beginning a Fedora installation

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Starting the installation and checking media for errors continued1

Starting the Installation and Checking Media for Errors (continued)

Figure 2-3: Testing DVD media

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Choosing the language keyboard and storage type

Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage Type

  • Allowed to choose installation language

  • Choose keyboard configuration

    • Keyboard model and layout automatically detected

  • Select types of storage devices used to host the Linux OS

    • For internal or locally attached hard drive installation, select Basic Storage Devices

    • For installation on SAN or DASD, select Specialized Storage Devices

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Choosing the language keyboard and storage type continued

Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage Type (continued)

Figure 2-4: Selecting an installation language

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Choosing the language keyboard and storage type continued1

Choosing the Language, Keyboard, and Storage Type (continued)

Figure 2-5: Verifying keyboard configuration

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Selecting a host name time zone and root password

Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password

  • Supply a host name that will identify system on the network

    • By default use localhost.localdomain

  • Important to select correct time zone for the local system

  • Authentication: Users log in via valid user name and password

  • Configure two user accounts

    • Administrator account (root): full rights to system

    • Regular user account

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Selecting a host name time zone and root password continued

Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)

Figure 2-7: Selecting a host name

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Selecting a host name time zone and root password continued1

Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)

Figure 2-8: Selecting a time zone

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Selecting a host name time zone and root password continued2

Selecting a Host Name, Time Zone, and Root Password (continued)

Figure 2-9: Setting a root password

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Configuring storage devices

Configuring Storage Devices

  • Most common storage devices for storing Linux OS are hard disks

    • Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA)

    • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)

    • Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)

  • Each hard disk is divided into partitions

    • Partitions formatted with filesystems

    • Maximum four primary partitions

    • Extended partition can be divided into logical drives

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Configuring storage devices continued

Configuring Storage Devices (continued)

Table 2-4: Example of a partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE hard disk

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Configuring storage devices continued1

Configuring Storage Devices (continued)

  • Filesystems can be accessed if attached (mounted) to a directory

  • Minimum of two partitions

    • Partition for root directory

    • Partition for virtual memory (swap memory)

      • Area on hard disk used to store information normally residing in physical memory (RAM)

  • Automatic or manual partitioning

    • Better to manually partition

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Comptia linux certification

Table 2-5: Common Linux filesystems and sizes

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Configuring storage devices continued2

Configuring Storage Devices (continued)

  • Different types of filesystems

    • Ext2: used on most Linux computers

    • Ext3, Ext4: performs journaling

    • Vfat: compatible with Windows’ FAT filesystem

    • REISER: performs journaling

    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparasons_of_file_systems

  • Journaling: keeps track of the information written to the hard drive

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Configuring storage devices continued3

Configuring Storage Devices (continued)

Figure 2-10: Selecting a partition strategy

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Configuring storage devices continued4

Configuring Storage Devices (continued)

  • When creating a partition, specify the partition technology

  • For standard disk partitions need to provide information regarding size, filesystem type, encryption options and mount point

  • Instead of standard partitions, can create volumes that span multiple disks

    • Logical Volume Manager (LVM)

    • Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Configuring the boot loader

Configuring the Boot Loader

  • Boot loader: program started by BIOS at system startup

    • Loads Linux kernel into memory from hard disk

    • Can also boot other existing OSs

  • GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): boot loader configured during Fedora Linux installation

  • Dual booting: choose OS to boot at startup

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Configuring the boot loader continued

Configuring the Boot Loader (continued)

Figure 2-14: Configuring a boot loader

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Configuring the boot loader continued1

Configuring the Boot Loader (continued)

  • Boot loader usually resides on the MBR or on first sector of / or /boot partition

  • Kernel parameters: information passed to Linux kernel via the boot loader

  • Large Block Addressing 32-bit (LBA32): enables Large Block Addressing in boot loader

    • For large hard disks not fully supported by the BIOS

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Selecting and installing packages

Selecting and Installing Packages

Figure 2-15: Selecting system role and software repositories

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Selecting and installing packages continued

Selecting and Installing Packages (continued)

Figure 2-16: Selecting individual packages

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Completing the firstboot wizard

Completing the Firstboot Wizard

  • Complete the installation

    • License agreement

    • User accounts and authentication

    • Date and time

      • Network Time Protocol (NTP)

    • Confirmation of hardware to be used

  • Log in with user account for daily tasks

  • Use Network Login: authenticate users based on an external database

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Completing the firstboot wizard continued

Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)

Figure 2-18: Creating a regular user account

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Completing the firstboot wizard continued1

Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)

Figure 2-19: Choosing authentication options

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Completing the firstboot wizard continued2

Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)

Figure 2-20: Advanced authentication options

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Completing the firstboot wizard continued3

Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)

Figure 2-21: Setting the date and time

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Completing the firstboot wizard continued4

Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued)

Figure 2-22: Viewing the hardware profile

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Basic linux usage shells terminals and the kernel

Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel

  • Terminal: channel allowing users to log on to the kernel locally or across a network

  • Shell: user interface which accepts user inputs and transfers them to the kernel

  • BASH Shell (Bourne Again Shell): default Linux shell

    • Command line shell

  • Linux allows multiple terminals, each with its own shell

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Basic linux usage shells terminals and the kernel continued

Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)

Figure 2-23: Shells, terminals, and the kernel

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Basic linux usage shells terminals and the kernel continued1

Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)

  • Graphical interface

    • Start GUI environment on top of BASH shell

    • Or, switch to a graphical terminal

      • e.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm)

  • From the local server, use key combinations to change to separate terminal

  • Command-line terminal may be accessed from GUI environment

  • Command line prompt:

    • Root user: #

    • Regular user: $

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Basic linux usage shells terminals and the kernel continued2

Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)

Table 2-6: Common Linux terminals

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Basic linux usage shells terminals and the kernel continued3

Basic Linux Usage: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued)

Figure 2-25: Accessing a command-line terminal in a GUI environment

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Basic shell commands

Basic Shell Commands

  • Commands: indicate name of program to execute

    • Case sensitive

  • Options: specific letters starting with “-” appearing after command name

    • Alter way command works

  • Arguments: specify a command’s specific working parameters

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Basic shell commands continued

Basic Shell Commands (continued)

Table 2-7: Some common Linux commands

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Shell metacharacters

Shell Metacharacters

  • Metacharacters: characters with a special meaning

    • e.g., $

      • Refers to a variable

    • Avoid use of metacharacters when typing commands unless using their special functionality

    • Single quotation marks ‘ ’ protect metacharacter from being interpreted specially by the shell

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Shell metacharacters continued

Shell Metacharacters (continued)

Table 2-8: Common BASH Shell metacharacters

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Getting command help

Getting Command Help

  • Manual (man) pages: most common form of documentation for Linux commands

    • At command prompt, type “man” followed by command name

    • Contain different sections

    • Searchable by keyword

  • Info pages: set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentation

    • At command prompt, type “info” followed by a command name

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Getting command help continued

Getting Command Help (continued)

Table 2-9: Manual page section numbers

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Shutting down the linux system

Shutting Down the Linux System

Table 2-10: Commands to halt and reboot the Linux operating system

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Summary

Summary

  • Prior to installation

    • Verify hardware requirements using HCL

    • Create preinstallation checklist

  • DVD–based installation

    • Easiest

    • Most common

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • Installation prompts for language, host name, date, time zone, keyboard layout, user account configuration, storage configuration, boot loader configuration, and package selection

  • Users must log in to a terminal and receive a shell before they are able to interact with the Linux system and kernel

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Summary continued1

Summary (continued)

  • From any type of terminal you can enter commands, options, and arguments at a shell prompt to perform system tasks, obtain command help, or shut down the Linux system

  • The shell is case sensitive and understands a variety of special characters called shell metacharacters, which should be protected if their special meaning is not required

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