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EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

FOR ENDING VIOLENCE AGAINST

WOMEN


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DEFINITION

  • “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”.


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Violence against women and girls is on the increase.

  • More violent forms, such as

  • femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders,

  • gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages,

  • Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war, trafficking in women and girls and

  • ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.


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  • In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDS


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  • There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue


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EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that?TO END VAW- WHAT CAN WE DO?

  • Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person

  • It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects.


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  • Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see!


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  • THE UN has identified violence against women and girls "the most pervasive" human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women.

  • According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years


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A POEM FOR YOUR REFLECTION: impoverishes not only individuals, but families, communities, and governments, and stalls economic development of each nation

We had our first argument last night, and he said a lot of cruel things that really hurt me.

I know he is sorry and didn’t mean the things he said, because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY.


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I got FLOWERS TODAY.  It wasn’t our anniversary or any other special day.

Last night he threw me into a wall and started to choke me.

It seemed like a nightmare, I couldn’t believe it was real.


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I woke up this morning sore and bruised all over. other special day.

I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY.


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I GOT flowers today, and it wasn’t Mother’s Day or any other special day.

Last night, he beat me up again, it was much worse than all the other times


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If I leave him what will I do?  How will I take care of my kids?

What about money?  I am afraid of him and scared to leave.

But I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY How do you help someone like this?


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How do you empower someone like this? kids?

  • Paulo Freire speaks about conscientisation process:

  • Identify the individual

  • Engage in dialogue/ Reflection

  • Lead to Action

  • Is your Neighbour, your sister, your friend being abused? How do you engage to facilitate empowerment?


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Faces of Indian Women foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

“One of the most enduring cliches about India is that it is the country of contradictions. Like all cliches, this one too has a grain of truth in it. At the heart of the contradiction stand Indian women: for it is true to say that they are among the most oppressed in the world, and it is equally true to say that they are among the most liberated, the most articulate and perhaps even the most free. Can these two realities be simultaneously true?”

UrvashiButalia


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Outline of the presentation foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

  • Background: Facts about India

  • Place of Women in Indian Society

  • Indian Women in Modern Times

    • Education

    • Employment

    • Empowerment

  • Trivia: Famous Faces Indian Women

  • Introspection


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Facts about India foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

  • Largest democracy in the world

  • Land boundaries with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Pakistan

  • Area: 3,287,590 sq.km (slightly more than one-third the size of US)

  • Coastline: 7,000 k.m.

  • Population: 1,065,070,607 (Growth rate of 1.44%)-second largest population in the world

  • Sex ratio: 1.07 male (s)/female

  • Life expectancy at birth: 63.25 years (male) and 64.77 years (female)

  • Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

  • Religions: Hindu (81.3%), Muslim (12%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh(1.9%), Others (2.5%)

  • Languages: 18 major languages; 216 languages in total and several thousands dialects

  • Literacy: 59.5% (total population); 70.2% (male); and 48.3% (female)


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Place of women in Indian society: foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issueA (cultural) historical perspective

  • The Goddess (Devi)

  • The mother

  • The sister

  • The wife

  • The tawaif


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Education

  • Literacy

    • Gender gaps:

      • Differences across states

        (Kerala has highest female literacy; Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have the lowest)

      • Differences between rural and urban areas

      • Parental preference for boys going to school

      • Higher dropout rate among girls


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Education

  • Gender gaps in higher education

    • About 1 percent of total women population has college education

    • Women account for a third of the students at college/university level

    • In engineering and business, the proportion of female students is much smaller

    • In education, nearly half of the students are women


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Barriers to Female Education

  • Poverty: one-fourth of India’s population lives below the poverty line (2002)

  • Social values and parental preferences

  • Inadequate school facilities

  • Shortage of female teachers: 29 percent at the primary level and 22 percent at the university level (1993)

  • Gender bias in curriculum


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Employment

  • Difficult to get an overall picture of employment among women in India

    • Most women work in the informal sector

  • Women accounted for only 23 percent of the total workers in the formal sector in 1991

  • The number of female workers has increased faster than the number of male workers

  • Female unemployment rates are similar to male unemployment rates


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Categories of employment (1991)


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Barriers to Female Employment

  • Cultural Restrictions

    • Hierarchical society (caste system)

    • Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of women

  • Discrimination at Workplace

    • More prevalent in fields where male competition is high

    • Less prevalent in fields where competition is low

  • Lack of employment opportunities


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Empowerment

  • Social Empowerment

    • Education

      • There is no direct relationship between education and work force participation; but may affect their participation in household decision making

    • Economic Independence:

      • Economic independence does not imply significant improvement in social standing

      • Culture and tradition play an important role

      • A small fraction has opened up towards Western values


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

  • Economic Empowerment

    • Property Rights

      • Patriarchal society

    • Economic Decision Making

      • In the household

      • In businesses


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Indian Women in Modern Times foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

  • Political Empowerment

    • Representation in democratic institutions

    • Government reservations policy for women: the constitutional amendment of 1990s


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TRIVIA foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Recognize Famous Faces


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Famous Faces foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

  • Indira Gandhi

  • Mother Teresa

  • Mira Nair

  • Kalpana Chawla

  • Gurinder Chadha

  • Arundhati Roy

  • Jhumpa Lahiri

  • Aishwarya Rai

  • Sushmita Sen


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Introspection foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue

Faces of an Indian woman

  • Wife

  • Mother

  • Sister

  • Bread earner

  • Compassionate member of the society


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“The origin of a child is a mother, a woman. ….she shows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

Sushmita Sen, Miss Universe 1994


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a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman." but that is just a beginning….


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Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman." -The Indian Context

Presentation by

Anjali Goyal

Director, Department of Women and Child Development,

Ministry of Human Resource Development

Government of India

November 2005


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Gender Budgeting- a definition a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • “Gender budget initiatives analyse how governments raise and spend public money, with the aim of securing gender equality in decision-making about public resource allocation; and gender equality in the distribution of the impact of government budgets, both in their benefits and in their burdens. The impact of government budgets on the most disadvantaged groups of women is a focus of special attention.”


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What is Gender Budgeting ? a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • An exercise to translate stated gender commitments of the Government into budgetary commitments.

    • Strategy for ensuring Gender Sensitive Resource Allocation and a tool for engendering macro economic policy

  • Entails affirmative action for empowering women

  • Covers assessment of gender differential impact of Government Budgets and policies (Revenue and Expenditure).

    • Enables Tracking and Allocating resources for women empowerment

    • Opportunity to determine real value of resources allocated to women


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What are gender commitments in the Indian context ? a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Constitutional Provisions

  • Legal Framework

    • Women Specific Laws

    • Laws affecting Women

  • Policies

  • Public Expenditure Programmes


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Women and Legal Framework a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

Women specific Legislations

  • Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

  • The Maternity Benefit Act 1961

  • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

  • Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986

  • The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987

  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005


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Women related legislations a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

41 laws covering various spheres.

  • Economic

    Factories Act 1948, Minimum Wages Act 1948,

    Equal Remuneration Act 1976, The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, The Plantation Labour Act, 1951, The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976

  • Protection

    Relevant provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Special provisions under IPC, The Legal Practitioners (Women) Act, 1923, The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse ) Act, 1994.


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Women related legislations a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

Social

Family Courts Act, 1984, The Indian Succession Act, 1925, The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971, The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (& amended in 2005), The Indian Divorce Act, 1969


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National Policy for Empowerment of Women a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Objective – advancement, development and empowerment, elimination of discrimination

  • Themes and issues – Judicial legal system, economic empowerment, social empowerment (health, education, science and technology, drinking water and sanitation, protection from violence) women and decision making, girl child


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Institutional Empowering Mechanisms a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Parliamentary Committee on Empowerment of Women

  • National Commission for Women


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The Challenge a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • How do we translate all these commitments into budgetary commitments and administrative action ?

  • How do we engender policies and programmes ?


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Evolution of Indian Initiatives a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."


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Seventh a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman." Plan

  • 1985- Ministry of Human Resource Development set up

  • Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry

  • 27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women


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Eighth Plan a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • The Eighth Plan (1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women

  • It commented:

    “ … special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity”


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Ninth Plan a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Women’s Component Plan- 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approach

  • Special vigil to be kept on the flow of theearmarked funds/benefits

  • Quantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to women


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Tenth Plan a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

·Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments.

  • Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-facto action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors.


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Indian Experience a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Women’s Component Plan-Earmarking resources for women

  • Implementing Women Specific Schemes

  • Monitoring macro indicators like MMR Literacy rates, work participation

  • Quantum and Trend analysis of resources allocated and spent on women

  • Gender Audit of schemes and programmes- implementation and impact analysis

    Anjali Goyal 2005 ©opyright


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Action by the Department for Women & Child Development a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Issue of checklists / guidelines for gender audit of public expenditure

  • Adoption of Strategic Framework for Gender Budgeting

  • Special letters sent to Ministry of Finance and Planning Commission to engender the Annual Plan and Budget exercise for 2005-2006

  • Consultations with select Departments on four priority areas

    • Food and Nutrition Security & Employment guarantee

    • Water and Sanitation

    • Adequate Health facilities

    • Asset base for women


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Action by the Department for Women & Child Development a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • Capacity Building- Departments in GOI and State Governments

  • Mainstreaming Gender Concerns- Watchdog approach

    • Interest Subsidy

    • Kerosene Oil

    • Micro Credit

    • Health Insurance

    • Inflation


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Instructions issued by Inter-Departmental Committee, GOI a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • All Departments to open Gender Budget Cells by 1.1. 2005

  • All Departments to reflect benefit-incidence analysis of expenditure in Annual Reports-2005-06

  • Eighteen Departments to reflect gender component of schemes in Performance Budgets of 2005-06


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Union Budget 2005-06 a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman."

  • New Statement on Gender Budgeting

  • Nine Departments Identified for focus


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Gender Mainstreaming- our new Mantra for “Women’s Development”

  • Women as a beneficiary segment

    • Need for Gender mainstreaming

    • Fiscal and Monetary Policies, Legislations

  • Need to Change Programme formulations and implementation processes

    • More gender friendly

    • Optimize Participation of Voluntary Sector

  • Gender budgeting – not an end in itself

    Anjali Goyal 2005 ©opyright


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Rationale of Alternative Strategy Development

  • Empowermenthas to be

    • Holistic(Political, Social and Economic)

    • Universal(equal opportunity and level playing field)

    • Participative and Inclusive

      Anjali Goyal 2005 ©opyright


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Framework of Gender Budgeting Development

  • Quantification of allocation of resources for women

  • Gender Audit of policies of the Government

  • Impact assessment of various schemes in the Union and State budgets

  • Analyzingschematic and policy initiatives and link with impact on status of women related Macro Indicators


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Framework of Gender Budgeting Development

  • Institutionalizing the generation and collection of gender dis-aggregated data

  • Consultations and Capacity building

  • Promote gender equity in participation in decision making


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Holistic approach to Empowerment Development

Water & San.

Health

& Nut.

Political

Participation

Education

Asset base

Skills

Marketing

Technology

Credit


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Action Areas Development

  • Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc.

  • Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills

  • Research/Technology for women

  • Women in the work force

  • Asset ownership by women

  • Women as Entrepreneurs


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  • Implementation of Laws like Development

    • Equal remuneration

    • Minimum Wages

    • Factories Act

  • Infrastructure for women like

    • Water and sanitation at workplace

    • Creches

    • Working Women Hostels

    • Transport services

    • Security


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Gender Analysis of State Budgets Development

  • Research Study – Decadal trend


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Preliminary Findings Development

  • Higher percentage share of states in expenditure on women

  • Expenditure on Health is largest component

  • Broad trend reflects increase in expenditure

  • Wide annual fluctuations in many states

  • Some states reflect relatively less expenditure compared with population of women


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Path Ahead Development

  • Pursue Gender Mainstreaming in the Government through coordination with Gender Budget cells

  • Widening scope of National Statistical System

  • Widening scope from public expenditure to Revenues, Fiscal and Monetary Policies

  • Pursue gender budgeting by States with help of planning Commission and MOF

  • Capacity Building- Coordinate with training institutes and experts to standardize methodology and tools


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To Conclude Development

  • “It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.”

    (6th Five Year Plan )


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Thank you Development


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Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment Development

2005-06 National Family Health Survey

(NFHS-3)


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Why Measure Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment in NFHS-3?

  • Important public health consequences for women and children

  • Strategic theme of NPP 2000

    Theme: Empowering women for improved health and nutrition

  • Millennium Development Goals 3 & 4

    MDG3: Promote gender equality and empower women

    MDG4: Eliminate gender disparity in education


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Content of Presentation NFHS-3?

  • Selected indicators of gender disparity

  • Access and control over resources

  • Women’s decision making role

  • Freedom of movement

  • Acceptance of gender unequal norms



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Gender Disparity in Media Exposure NFHS-3?

Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media

  • Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema

    • Men 88%

    • Women 71%

    • Gender Disparity 19%


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Employment: Another Area of Gender Disparity NFHS-3?

Percent

Among the population age 15-49

  • Men are 2 times as likely to be employed

  • Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash

  • Among the employed, 64% of women vs. 91% of men earn cash

  • Female share of population employed for cash is 39%



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    Does employment empower women financially? work

    • NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant)

    • 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband

    • 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them


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    Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men

    Percent

    Women’s report about their own earnings

    Men’s report about their wife’s earnings

    Mainly husband

    Husband & wife jointly

    Mainly wife


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    Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings?

    Percent of currently married women

    Age

    Residence

    Education

    Wealth Index


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    Do married women have access to any other financial resources?

    Percentage of women who:


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    Education, employment, or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control

    Percentage of women age 15-49 who have money which they can decide how to use



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    What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality?

    • Limited freedom of movement

    • Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding

      • Wife beating

      • A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes


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    Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to:

    The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community.



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    Although urban, educated, employed and wealthier persons are less likely to agree with wife beating, these characteristics are not sufficient to supplant beliefs in gender inegalitarian norms


    Attitude towards refusing sex with husband by situation women and men l.jpg
    Attitude towards refusing sex with husband by Situation, Women and Men

    Percentage who agree that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband when she:


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    Percentage of men age 15-49 who consider that, when a woman refuses to have sex with him when he wants, he has the right to:

    • Get angry and reprimand her - 20%

    • Refuse her financial support - 6%

    • Use force to have sex - 6%

    • Have sex with another woman - 4%


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    Key Findings refuses to have sex with him when he wants, he has the right to:

    • Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash.

    • The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about.

    • Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched.


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    Thank You refuses to have sex with him when he wants, he has the right to:


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