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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙. GRBs for UNravelling the Dark Ages Mission. SKA. 井上進(京大理). 分子. TMT. ALMA. 金属. 再電離 (磁場). ダスト. SPICA. ASTRO-H. CTA. high-z GRB afterglows: expectations. z measurement from Ly break:. JANUS z~<13 GUNDAM z~<?. Subaru z~<20 TMT z~<40. 天文月報 102, 248 (2009).

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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙

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GRB多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙

GRBs for UNravelling the Dark Ages Mission

SKA

井上進(京大理)

分子

TMT

ALMA

金属

再電離

(磁場)

ダスト

SPICA

ASTRO-H

CTA


high-z GRB afterglows: expectations

z measurement

from Ly break:

JANUS z~<13

GUNDAM z~<?

Subaru z~<20

TMT z~<40

天文月報

102, 248 (2009)


z~100-10 未知との遭遇

=metal/dust-free, H2+HD-cooling

Pop 3

first star epoch

assume: no metal/dust, B field, CR, turbulence, DM heating

1st HII region -> IGM reionization

1st SN -> 1st metal/dust (+CR+B)

1st BH -> 1st QSO

=metal/dust-cooling

Pop 2

1st sun -> 1st planet, life, human!

観測ほとんど皆無 (WMAPのみ)

1st gen.はわかったとされている

2nd gen.研究に移行

Yoshida, Omukai & Hernquist 08


deduced from GRB rate

cosmic star formation rate

from GRB rate

Kistler+ 09

from HUDF

JANUS/GUNDAMでよりhigh-zへ

直接観測と相補的


z>7 現在のフロンティア

cosmic reionization epoch

When?

early? late? two-epoch?

How?

topology?

What?

Pop III? Pop II?

mini-QSOs?

dark matter decay?

So what?

suppression of

dwarf galaxy

formation

Madau 07


reionization: IGM HI (+ HII) from Lyprofile

z=6.295

McQuinn+ 08

Ly damping wing profile

mean IGM HI + host galaxy HI + host HII

宇宙再電離

すばる、TMTで各成分を分離

よりhigh-zへ(WMAP, Planckと重なる時期)


g + g→ e+ + e-

e.g. TeV + 1eV (IR)

100 GeV + 10 eV (UV)

UV background from gamma-ray absorption

e

E

high-z UV背景放射:ガンマ線吸収で識別

CTA(Fermiの後継)でz~20 GRBまで観測可能

SI+ 10 MN 404, 1938

Y. Inoue, SI+, in prep.

gamma-ray opacity

cosmic star formation rate


below Ly edge

above Ly edge

<13.6 eV

>13.6 eV

high-z UV background

  • does not ionize HI, weakly absorbed

  • reasonably uniform

  • important for  absorption

  • ionizes HI, strongly absorbed

  • highly non-uniform

  • negligible for  absorption

  • direct measure of UV emissivity

  • (indep. of escape fraction,

  • IGM clumping factor)


kinematics

D’Elia+ 09

GRB 080319B z=0.937

GRB 050904 z=6.295

metal abundances

Kawai+ 06, Totani+ 06

- multiple velocity components

- variable line ratio (UV pumping)

母銀河の金属組成、運動学

よりhigh-zへ

VLT/UVES res. ~4 km/s @4500A

- 1.9km/s @9000A


GRB 090926A z=2.1071

ground

D’Elia+ arXiv:1007.5357

metal abundances

FeII

VLT/X-shooter 0.3-2.5um R=10000

fine struc.

X/H~3x10-3-10-2

SiII


Campana+ 06

星生成領域スケールの組成

遠方まで観測可能?

ダストの影響なし

がH, Heの情報なし

X-ray absorption lines/edges

<-> 光赤外と相補的

EDGE/XENIA

E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

z=1 GRB

z=7 GRB

Piro+ 07

-> more from D. Hartmann


E=0.3-10 keV E=7 eV Seff=210 cm2

simulations by Bamba (see also Kawai, Yonetoku+, Kyoto conf.)

ASTRO-H

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Si

log NH=23

S

Fe

Si

z=1

bright [email protected]=10ks

5e-10 erg/cm2/s

integ. 10ks

スザクとは違うのだよ、スザクとは!


E=0.3-10 keV E=7 eV Seff=210 cm2

see also Kawai, Yonetoku+, Kyoto conf.

ASTRO-H

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

z=6

bright [email protected]=10ks

4e-11 erg/cm2/s

integ. 10ks

Fe

log NH=23

z measurement

for dark bursts

<- JANUS alert


E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

XENIA

z=1

early [email protected]=1ks

1e-9 erg/cm2/s

integ. 1ks

Mg

Si

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Ne

S

Fe

O

log NH=23

O


E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

XENIA

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Si

z=6

early [email protected]=1ks

5e-10 erg/cm2/s

integ. 1ks

log NH=23

Fe


nucleosynthesis by low metal. SN/HN

Kobayashi+ 06

metal abundances at low metallicity

CNO: mass loss

a-elements: pair-instability SN

Ti, Zn: entropy in SN core -> explosion physics

Mn: SN Ia contribution


electronic absorption bands

Prochaska+ 09

GRB 080607 z=3.063

molecules

Keck/LRIS R=1000-4000

log NHI=22.70

log NH2=21.2

log NCO=16.5

分子=星形成の原材料

よりhigh-zへ?


Omukai+ 05 model

collapsing zero/low-metal. protostellar clouds

collapse of zero/low-metallicity star forming clouds

T minimum -> fragmentation

H2

dust

H2+HD

[Z/H]<-6: Mfrag~103MQPop 3

-3<[Z/H]<-5: Mfrag~0.1-100MQPop 2

[Z/H]crit=-5+-1


Ivanchik+ arXiv:1002.2107

Q 1232+082 z=2.3377

HD molecules

VLT/UVES R=45000

N(HD)/N(H2)

=7.1(+3.2 -2.2)x10-5


c.f. ambient H2 excited by GRB UV

Draine 00, Draine & Hao 02

electronic absorption bands

cold H2:

912-1110A (11.2-13.6 eV)

vib. excited H2:

1110-1650 A (7.5-11.2 eV)

primordial molecules

similar for HD?

N~1018-1020 cm-2

foreground massive star

UV pumped H2

excited H2

massive

star

probe individual Pop III

newly-born massive stars?

GRB

rdiss


SI, Omukai & Ciardi

2007 MNRAS 380, 1715

atomic/molecular absorption lines

SKA

  • CO (low)

probe physical

conditions (different J)

  • HD

  • CO (high)

  • [OI]

ALMA

probe Pop III

Pop III->II transition

回転順位線

より高柱密度領域

TMTと相補的

チャレンジングだろうがやってみよう


Perley+ 10

GRB 071025 z~5

dust

  • extinction feature

  • best fit with high-z

  • QSO extinc. curve

  • (Maiolino+ 04)

ダスト:

Pop II星形成への

遷移に本質的?TMTでよりhigh-zへ

Pop III ダストの性質も?


(optical depth at fragmentation)

absorption by first dust

pair instability

SN

zero-metal SN II

based on first dust models of Schneider+ 06

TMT (+SPICA)でPop 3 -> Pop 2 遷移を探れる?ダストの性質も?


B fields in Pop III star forming regions

B~10-16-10-14 G on pc scales

intergalactic/interstellar magnetic fields at high-z

IGM B generation at high-z

cosmic reionization fronts

B~10-20-10-16 G

B profile

B

nHI

Xu+ 08

T

ngas

mean B vs z

Gnedin+ 00

also Langer+ 05


GRB

“pair echos” (delayed secondary emission) probe of intergalactic magnetic fields

Plaga 95 (original idea)

sensitive to very weak

intergalactic magnetic fields

g

~TeV

B~10-20-10-16 G

MeV

e-

IR

CMB

e+

B

g

~GeV

delay

CMB

g

MeV


fix Eiso=1054 erg, z=10, Emax=10 TeV

evolving echo flux

B=10-15G

CTA sens.

assume low EBL

(0.1x CF model)

observationally challenging, but marginally detectable by CTA

Takahashi, SI, Ichiki & Nakamura arXiv:1007.5363


- large r~<100 pc

- low density n~0.1 cm-3

Pop 3 HII regions

- flat profile

Can be probed through

afterglow evolution?

Whalen+ 04

also Kitayama+ 04


まとめ

GRBは宇宙で最も明るい多色光源 有効利用しよう

特にz>10 first star epochは未開拓 GRBで切り拓く

調べられる/られそうなこと:

z 測定、星形成史、再電離史、

金属組成、運動学、分子、ダスト、磁場…

課題:Pop III GRB? その兆候は?

多波長のシナジー:

SKA, ALMA, SPICA, ASTRO-H, CTA…

JANUS and/or GUNDAMを上げよう


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