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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙. GRBs for UNravelling the Dark Ages Mission. SKA. 井上進(京大理). 分子. TMT. ALMA. 金属. 再電離 (磁場). ダスト. SPICA. ASTRO-H. CTA. high-z GRB afterglows: expectations. z measurement from Ly break:. JANUS z~<13 GUNDAM z~<?. Subaru z~<20 TMT z~<40. 天文月報 102, 248 (2009).

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GRB 多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙

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Grb

GRB多波長放射で切り開く暗黒の宇宙

GRBs for UNravelling the Dark Ages Mission

SKA

井上進(京大理)

分子

TMT

ALMA

金属

再電離

(磁場)

ダスト

SPICA

ASTRO-H

CTA


High z grb afterglows expectations

high-z GRB afterglows: expectations

z measurement

from Ly break:

JANUS z~<13

GUNDAM z~<?

Subaru z~<20

TMT z~<40

天文月報

102, 248 (2009)


First star epoch

z~100-10 未知との遭遇

=metal/dust-free, H2+HD-cooling

Pop 3

first star epoch

assume: no metal/dust, B field, CR, turbulence, DM heating

1st HII region -> IGM reionization

1st SN -> 1st metal/dust (+CR+B)

1st BH -> 1st QSO

=metal/dust-cooling

Pop 2

1st sun -> 1st planet, life, human!

観測ほとんど皆無 (WMAPのみ)

1st gen.はわかったとされている

2nd gen.研究に移行

Yoshida, Omukai & Hernquist 08


Cosmic star formation rate

deduced from GRB rate

cosmic star formation rate

from GRB rate

Kistler+ 09

from HUDF

JANUS/GUNDAMでよりhigh-zへ

直接観測と相補的


Cosmic reionization epoch

z>7 現在のフロンティア

cosmic reionization epoch

When?

early? late? two-epoch?

How?

topology?

What?

Pop III? Pop II?

mini-QSOs?

dark matter decay?

So what?

suppression of

dwarf galaxy

formation

Madau 07


Reionization igm hi hii from ly profile

reionization: IGM HI (+ HII) from Lyprofile

z=6.295

McQuinn+ 08

Ly damping wing profile

mean IGM HI + host galaxy HI + host HII

宇宙再電離

すばる、TMTで各成分を分離

よりhigh-zへ(WMAP, Planckと重なる時期)


Uv background from gamma ray absorption

g + g→ e+ + e-

e.g. TeV + 1eV (IR)

100 GeV + 10 eV (UV)

UV background from gamma-ray absorption

e

E

high-z UV背景放射:ガンマ線吸収で識別

CTA(Fermiの後継)でz~20 GRBまで観測可能

SI+ 10 MN 404, 1938

Y. Inoue, SI+, in prep.

gamma-ray opacity

cosmic star formation rate


High z uv background

below Ly edge

above Ly edge

<13.6 eV

>13.6 eV

high-z UV background

  • does not ionize HI, weakly absorbed

  • reasonably uniform

  • important for  absorption

  • ionizes HI, strongly absorbed

  • highly non-uniform

  • negligible for  absorption

  • direct measure of UV emissivity

  • (indep. of escape fraction,

  • IGM clumping factor)


Metal abundances

kinematics

D’Elia+ 09

GRB 080319B z=0.937

GRB 050904 z=6.295

metal abundances

Kawai+ 06, Totani+ 06

- multiple velocity components

- variable line ratio (UV pumping)

母銀河の金属組成、運動学

よりhigh-zへ

VLT/UVES res. ~4 km/s @4500A

- 1.9km/s @9000A


Metal abundances1

GRB 090926A z=2.1071

ground

D’Elia+ arXiv:1007.5357

metal abundances

FeII

VLT/X-shooter 0.3-2.5um R=10000

fine struc.

X/H~3x10-3-10-2

SiII


X ray absorption lines edges

Campana+ 06

星生成領域スケールの組成

遠方まで観測可能?

ダストの影響なし

がH, Heの情報なし

X-ray absorption lines/edges

<-> 光赤外と相補的

EDGE/XENIA

E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

z=1 GRB

z=7 GRB

Piro+ 07

-> more from D. Hartmann


Astro h

E=0.3-10 keV E=7 eV Seff=210 cm2

simulations by Bamba (see also Kawai, Yonetoku+, Kyoto conf.)

ASTRO-H

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Si

log NH=23

S

Fe

Si

z=1

bright [email protected]=10ks

5e-10 erg/cm2/s

integ. 10ks

スザクとは違うのだよ、スザクとは!


Astro h1

E=0.3-10 keV E=7 eV Seff=210 cm2

see also Kawai, Yonetoku+, Kyoto conf.

ASTRO-H

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

z=6

bright [email protected]=10ks

4e-11 erg/cm2/s

integ. 10ks

Fe

log NH=23

z measurement

for dark bursts

<- JANUS alert


Xenia

E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

XENIA

z=1

early [email protected]=1ks

1e-9 erg/cm2/s

integ. 1ks

Mg

Si

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Ne

S

Fe

O

log NH=23

O


Xenia1

E~0.2-2 keV E~3 eV Seff~1000 cm2

XENIA

log NH=22 (Zsolar)

Si

z=6

early [email protected]=1ks

5e-10 erg/cm2/s

integ. 1ks

log NH=23

Fe


Metal abundances at low metallicity

nucleosynthesis by low metal. SN/HN

Kobayashi+ 06

metal abundances at low metallicity

CNO: mass loss

a-elements: pair-instability SN

Ti, Zn: entropy in SN core -> explosion physics

Mn: SN Ia contribution


Molecules

electronic absorption bands

Prochaska+ 09

GRB 080607 z=3.063

molecules

Keck/LRIS R=1000-4000

log NHI=22.70

log NH2=21.2

log NCO=16.5

分子=星形成の原材料

よりhigh-zへ?


Collapse of zero low metallicity star forming clouds

Omukai+ 05 model

collapsing zero/low-metal. protostellar clouds

collapse of zero/low-metallicity star forming clouds

T minimum -> fragmentation

H2

dust

H2+HD

[Z/H]<-6: Mfrag~103MQPop 3

-3<[Z/H]<-5: Mfrag~0.1-100MQPop 2

[Z/H]crit=-5+-1


Hd molecules

Ivanchik+ arXiv:1002.2107

Q 1232+082 z=2.3377

HD molecules

VLT/UVES R=45000

N(HD)/N(H2)

=7.1(+3.2 -2.2)x10-5


Primordial molecules

c.f. ambient H2 excited by GRB UV

Draine 00, Draine & Hao 02

electronic absorption bands

cold H2:

912-1110A (11.2-13.6 eV)

vib. excited H2:

1110-1650 A (7.5-11.2 eV)

primordial molecules

similar for HD?

N~1018-1020 cm-2

foreground massive star

UV pumped H2

excited H2

massive

star

probe individual Pop III

newly-born massive stars?

GRB

rdiss


Atomic molecular absorption lines

SI, Omukai & Ciardi

2007 MNRAS 380, 1715

atomic/molecular absorption lines

SKA

  • CO (low)

probe physical

conditions (different J)

  • HD

  • CO (high)

  • [OI]

ALMA

probe Pop III

Pop III->II transition

回転順位線

より高柱密度領域

TMTと相補的

チャレンジングだろうがやってみよう


Grb

Perley+ 10

GRB 071025 z~5

dust

  • extinction feature

  • best fit with high-z

  • QSO extinc. curve

  • (Maiolino+ 04)

ダスト:

Pop II星形成への

遷移に本質的?TMTでよりhigh-zへ

Pop III ダストの性質も?


Absorption by first dust

(optical depth at fragmentation)

absorption by first dust

pair instability

SN

zero-metal SN II

based on first dust models of Schneider+ 06

TMT (+SPICA)でPop 3 -> Pop 2 遷移を探れる?ダストの性質も?


Intergalactic interstellar magnetic fields at high z

B fields in Pop III star forming regions

B~10-16-10-14 G on pc scales

intergalactic/interstellar magnetic fields at high-z

IGM B generation at high-z

cosmic reionization fronts

B~10-20-10-16 G

B profile

B

nHI

Xu+ 08

T

ngas

mean B vs z

Gnedin+ 00

also Langer+ 05


Pair echos delayed secondary emission probe of intergalactic magnetic fields

GRB

“pair echos” (delayed secondary emission) probe of intergalactic magnetic fields

Plaga 95 (original idea)

sensitive to very weak

intergalactic magnetic fields

g

~TeV

B~10-20-10-16 G

MeV

e-

IR

CMB

e+

B

g

~GeV

delay

CMB

g

MeV


Evolving echo flux

fix Eiso=1054 erg, z=10, Emax=10 TeV

evolving echo flux

B=10-15G

CTA sens.

assume low EBL

(0.1x CF model)

observationally challenging, but marginally detectable by CTA

Takahashi, SI, Ichiki & Nakamura arXiv:1007.5363


Pop 3 hii regions

- large r~<100 pc

- low density n~0.1 cm-3

Pop 3 HII regions

- flat profile

Can be probed through

afterglow evolution?

Whalen+ 04

also Kitayama+ 04


Grb

まとめ

GRBは宇宙で最も明るい多色光源 有効利用しよう

特にz>10 first star epochは未開拓 GRBで切り拓く

調べられる/られそうなこと:

z 測定、星形成史、再電離史、

金属組成、運動学、分子、ダスト、磁場…

課題:Pop III GRB? その兆候は?

多波長のシナジー:

SKA, ALMA, SPICA, ASTRO-H, CTA…

JANUS and/or GUNDAMを上げよう


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