COGNITIVE DISABILITIES

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Why Are We Here?. To provide information on the definition of Cognitive Disabilities.. To provide information on eligibility criteria for Cognitive Disabilities.. DEFINITION. Cognitive disability means:. significantly sub-average intellectual functioning. that exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior.

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COGNITIVE DISABILITIES

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1. COGNITIVE DISABILITIES Definition and Eligibility Criteria August 2010 Welcome to Eligibility Criteria Workshop on Cognitive Disabilities. For the next two hours we will be discussing PI 11.35 which addresses the need for special education and PI 11.36(1) which addresses the definition and eligibility criteria for the impairment area of cognitive disability. Our agenda today includes: The definition for cognitive disability Assumptions that are integral to the understanding of the definition for Cognitive disability The three areas that are to be addressed as part of the eligibility criteria Need for Special Education We will try to break at certain times throughout the workshop to answer your questions. Handouts for today include; 1) Slides 2) Eligibility Checklist for CD 3)Resources Let’s Start!Welcome to Eligibility Criteria Workshop on Cognitive Disabilities. For the next two hours we will be discussing PI 11.35 which addresses the need for special education and PI 11.36(1) which addresses the definition and eligibility criteria for the impairment area of cognitive disability. Our agenda today includes: The definition for cognitive disability Assumptions that are integral to the understanding of the definition for Cognitive disability The three areas that are to be addressed as part of the eligibility criteria Need for Special Education We will try to break at certain times throughout the workshop to answer your questions. Handouts for today include; 1) Slides 2) Eligibility Checklist for CD 3)Resources Let’s Start!

2. Why Are We Here? To provide information on the definition of Cognitive Disabilities. The definition is adapted from the 1992 American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) definition. (Now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities - AAIDD.) This the current definition used in many states and used in the Developmental Disability field. There have now been updates made to the AAIDD definition in 2009.This definition replaces the AAMR definition of 1973 that we have been using. The needs of the child are then discussed as part of program planning rather than IQ. The definition is adapted from the 1992 American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) definition. (Now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities - AAIDD.) This the current definition used in many states and used in the Developmental Disability field. There have now been updates made to the AAIDD definition in 2009.This definition replaces the AAMR definition of 1973 that we have been using. The needs of the child are then discussed as part of program planning rather than IQ.

3. DEFINITION Cognitive disability means: Cognitive Disability means; Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning ... This is defined as an IQ standard score of approximately 70 or below, based on assessment that includes one or more individually administered general intelligence tests developed for the purpose of assessing intellectual functioning. These data should be reviewed by the IEP team and validated with additional test scores or evaluative information. Existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior... The intellectual limitations occur at the same time as the deficits in adaptive behavior. Evidence of adaptive behavior deficits are necessary because intellectual functioning alone is insufficient for a child to have an impairment of cognitive disabilities. The impact on functioning of these deficits must be sufficiently comprehensive to encompass at least two adaptive behavior areas, thus showing a generalized deficit and reducing the probability of measurement error. Adversely affects education performance Cognitive Disability means; Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning ... This is defined as an IQ standard score of approximately 70 or below, based on assessment that includes one or more individually administered general intelligence tests developed for the purpose of assessing intellectual functioning. These data should be reviewed by the IEP team and validated with additional test scores or evaluative information. Existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior... The intellectual limitations occur at the same time as the deficits in adaptive behavior. Evidence of adaptive behavior deficits are necessary because intellectual functioning alone is insufficient for a child to have an impairment of cognitive disabilities. The impact on functioning of these deficits must be sufficiently comprehensive to encompass at least two adaptive behavior areas, thus showing a generalized deficit and reducing the probability of measurement error. Adversely affects education performance

4. Assumptions “Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture.” The following five assumptions are essential to the application of this definition ... These statements are essential to the meaning of the definition and cannot be conceptually separated from the definition according to the authors of the 2010 AAIDD definition. 1. Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual's age peers and culture. This means that the standards against which the individual’s functioning are compared are typical community-based environments, not environments that are isolated or segregated by ability. Typical community environments include homes, neighborhoods, schools, businesses, and other environments in which people of similar age ordinarily live, learn, work, and interact. The concept of age peers should also include consideration of individuals of the same cultural or linguistic background. The following five assumptions are essential to the application of this definition ... These statements are essential to the meaning of the definition and cannot be conceptually separated from the definition according to the authors of the 2010 AAIDD definition. 1. Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual's age peers and culture. This means that the standards against which the individual’s functioning are compared are typical community-based environments, not environments that are isolated or segregated by ability. Typical community environments include homes, neighborhoods, schools, businesses, and other environments in which people of similar age ordinarily live, learn, work, and interact. The concept of age peers should also include consideration of individuals of the same cultural or linguistic background.

5. Assumptions “Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor and behavioral factors.” 2.Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor and behavioral factors . This means that in order for assessment to be meaningful, it must take into account the individual’s diversity and unique response factors. The individual’s culture or ethnicity, including language spoken at home, nonverbal communication and customs that might influence assessment results must be considered in making a valid assessment. Under State and federal law, specifically the IEP team shall meet the evaluation criteria specified under 115.782(2)(a),Stats, and IDEA regulations 300.530-536 when conducting tests and using other evaluation materials in determining a child’s disability. 2.Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor and behavioral factors . This means that in order for assessment to be meaningful, it must take into account the individual’s diversity and unique response factors. The individual’s culture or ethnicity, including language spoken at home, nonverbal communication and customs that might influence assessment results must be considered in making a valid assessment. Under State and federal law, specifically the IEP team shall meet the evaluation criteria specified under 115.782(2)(a),Stats, and IDEA regulations 300.530-536 when conducting tests and using other evaluation materials in determining a child’s disability.

6. Assumptions “Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths.” 3.Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths. This means that people with cognitive disabilities are complex human beings who likely have certain gifts as well as limitations. Like all people, they often do some things better than other things. Individuals may have capacities and strengths that are independent of their cognitive disability. These may include: Strengths in physical or social capabilities (e.g., good health); Strengths in adaptive skills (c) Strengths in one aspect of an adaptive skill in which they otherwise show an overall limitation. 3.Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths. This means that people with cognitive disabilities are complex human beings who likely have certain gifts as well as limitations. Like all people, they often do some things better than other things. Individuals may have capacities and strengths that are independent of their cognitive disability. These may include: Strengths in physical or social capabilities (e.g., good health); Strengths in adaptive skills (c) Strengths in one aspect of an adaptive skill in which they otherwise show an overall limitation.

7. Assumptions “ An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports.” 4.An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. This means that merely analyzing someone’s limitations is not enough, and that specifying limitations should be a teams first step in developing a description of the supports the individual needs in order to improve functioning. Labeling someone with the name CD should lead to a benefit such as a profile of needed supports. 4.An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. This means that merely analyzing someone’s limitations is not enough, and that specifying limitations should be a teams first step in developing a description of the supports the individual needs in order to improve functioning. Labeling someone with the name CD should lead to a benefit such as a profile of needed supports.

8. Assumptions “With appropriate supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with CD will generally improve .” 5.With appropriate supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with a CD will generally improve . This means that if appropriate personalized supports are provided to an individual with CD, improved functioning should result. If individuals are not improving significantly, this relative lack of improvement should be the basis for determining whether the current supports are effective and whether changes are necessary. Finally, in rare circumstances, the major objective should be to maintain current level of functioning or to slow regression over time. 5.With appropriate supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with a CD will generally improve . This means that if appropriate personalized supports are provided to an individual with CD, improved functioning should result. If individuals are not improving significantly, this relative lack of improvement should be the basis for determining whether the current supports are effective and whether changes are necessary. Finally, in rare circumstances, the major objective should be to maintain current level of functioning or to slow regression over time.

9. Eligibility Criteria The IEP team may identify a child as having a cognitive disability if the child meets the criteria specified in PI 11.36 (1) (b) with regards to; Now that we have an understanding of the definition, let’s move on to the eligibility criteria. Read slide.Now that we have an understanding of the definition, let’s move on to the eligibility criteria. Read slide.

10. Intellectual Functioning The child has a standard score of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean on a least one individually administered intelligence test developed to assess intellectual functioning. The first component of the eligibility criteria for CD is intellectual functioning. Evaluation data should be reported by IEP team participants experienced with children who have a cognitive disability and qualified in terms of professional and state regulations as well as publisher's guidelines to conduct a thorough, evaluation of the child's intelligence. Assuming that appropriate standardized measures are available for the child’s social, linguistic, and cultural background, and that proper adaptations may be made for any motor or sensory limitation, the intelligence criterion of performance should be approximately two or more standard deviations below the mean. This criterion assumes a standard score of approximately 70 or below on scales with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15. Although reliance on an IQ standard score presents a series of concerns, it is currently the only way to address the intellectual aspect of cognitive disabilities in a normative way. The determination of subaverage intellectual functioning requires the use of global measures that include different types of items and different factors of intelligence (Reschly, 1987). The instruments most commonly used for the assessment of intellectual functioning are the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (Gale H. Roid; 2004), one of the Wechsler scales (e.g., the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition [Pearson Publishing; 2003, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition; 2002, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (K-ABC-II, Pearson Publishing). The first component of the eligibility criteria for CD is intellectual functioning. Evaluation data should be reported by IEP team participants experienced with children who have a cognitive disability and qualified in terms of professional and state regulations as well as publisher's guidelines to conduct a thorough, evaluation of the child's intelligence. Assuming that appropriate standardized measures are available for the child’s social, linguistic, and cultural background, and that proper adaptations may be made for any motor or sensory limitation, the intelligence criterion of performance should be approximately two or more standard deviations below the mean. This criterion assumes a standard score of approximately 70 or below on scales with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15. Although reliance on an IQ standard score presents a series of concerns, it is currently the only way to address the intellectual aspect of cognitive disabilities in a normative way. The determination of subaverage intellectual functioning requires the use of global measures that include different types of items and different factors of intelligence (Reschly, 1987). The instruments most commonly used for the assessment of intellectual functioning are the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (Gale H. Roid; 2004), one of the Wechsler scales (e.g., the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition [Pearson Publishing; 2003, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition; 2002, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (K-ABC-II, Pearson Publishing).

11. Intellectual Functioning When evaluating a child, the child has; This criteria will be used most often during a re-evaluation of a child with a cognitive disability. In order for the IEP team to use a standard score between 1 and two standard deviations below the mean, the child has to have been documented as having an impairment of a cognitive disability in the past and the child’s condition is expected to last indefinitely. This means that an IEP team has had to find the child has met eligibility criteria for cognitive disability in the past. This criteria will be used most often during a re-evaluation of a child with a cognitive disability. In order for the IEP team to use a standard score between 1 and two standard deviations below the mean, the child has to have been documented as having an impairment of a cognitive disability in the past and the child’s condition is expected to last indefinitely. This means that an IEP team has had to find the child has met eligibility criteria for cognitive disability in the past.

12. Intellectual Functioning - Evaluation Tools Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB5) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) Differential Abilities Scales-II (DAS-II) Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test-Second Edition Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 2nd Edition (CTONI-2)

13. Adaptive Behavior The child has deficits in adaptive behavior: The second component within the eligibility criteria for Cognitive Disability is the existence of deficits in adaptive behavior. Deficits must occur in two or more applicable adaptive behavior areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. The concept of adaptive behavior was first formally included in the 1959 definition (Heber, 1959) and was defined in Grossman (1983) as follows: Adaptive behavior refers to the quality of everyday performance in coping with environmental demands. The quality of general adaptation is mediated by level of intelligence; thus, the two concepts overlap in meaning. It is evident, however, from consideration of the definition of adaptive behavior, with its stress on everyday coping, that adaptive behavior refers to what people do to take care of themselves and to relate to others in daily living rather than the abstract potential implied by intelligence. The second component within the eligibility criteria for Cognitive Disability is the existence of deficits in adaptive behavior. Deficits must occur in two or more applicable adaptive behavior areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. The concept of adaptive behavior was first formally included in the 1959 definition (Heber, 1959) and was defined in Grossman (1983) as follows: Adaptive behavior refers to the quality of everyday performance in coping with environmental demands. The quality of general adaptation is mediated by level of intelligence; thus, the two concepts overlap in meaning. It is evident, however, from consideration of the definition of adaptive behavior, with its stress on everyday coping, that adaptive behavior refers to what people do to take care of themselves and to relate to others in daily living rather than the abstract potential implied by intelligence.

14. Adaptive Behavior Assessments include interviews of the parents, tests, and observations of the child in adaptive behavior which are relevant to the child’s age A variety of adaptive behavior scales were developed in the wake of the formal inclusion of adaptive behavior in earlier AAMR definitions of mental retardation. As a consequence, there is relatively close correspondence between the structure of many of the scales and the implicit meanings within those definitions (Kamphaus, 1987). For many years, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (Doll, 1953) served as the standard measure of adaptive behavior. However, a variety of tools are now available and in common use. These instruments include the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales-School Edition , Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales- Second Edition, the Scales of Independent Behavior Revised, Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale-Revised Second Edition and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System- Second Edition. A draft listing of assessments had been completed and will be uploaded to the CD website soon. A variety of adaptive behavior scales were developed in the wake of the formal inclusion of adaptive behavior in earlier AAMR definitions of mental retardation. As a consequence, there is relatively close correspondence between the structure of many of the scales and the implicit meanings within those definitions (Kamphaus, 1987). For many years, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (Doll, 1953) served as the standard measure of adaptive behavior. However, a variety of tools are now available and in common use. These instruments include the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales-School Edition , Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales- Second Edition, the Scales of Independent Behavior Revised, Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale-Revised Second Edition and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System- Second Edition. A draft listing of assessments had been completed and will be uploaded to the CD website soon.

15. Adaptive Behavior Adaptive Behavior to be assessed includes; 1.Communication: Skills include the ability to comprehend and express information through symbolic behaviors (e.g., spoken word, written.word/orthography, graphic symbols, sign language, manually coded English) or nonsymbolic behaviors (e.g., facial expression, body movement, touch, gesture). Specific examples include the ability to comprehend and/or receive a request, an emotion, a greeting, a comment, a protest, or rejection. Higher level skills of communication (e.g., writing a letter) would also relate to functional academics. 2.Self-Care: skills involved in toileting, eating, dressing, hygiene, and grooming. 3.Home-Living: skills related to functioning within a home, which include clothing care, housekeeping, property maintenance, food preparation and cooking, planning and budgeting for shopping, home safety, and daily scheduling. Related skills include orientation and behavior in the home and nearby neighborhood, communication of choices and needs, social interaction, and application of functional academics in the home. 1.Communication: Skills include the ability to comprehend and express information through symbolic behaviors (e.g., spoken word, written.word/orthography, graphic symbols, sign language, manually coded English) or nonsymbolic behaviors (e.g., facial expression, body movement, touch, gesture). Specific examples include the ability to comprehend and/or receive a request, an emotion, a greeting, a comment, a protest, or rejection. Higher level skills of communication (e.g., writing a letter) would also relate to functional academics. 2.Self-Care: skills involved in toileting, eating, dressing, hygiene, and grooming. 3.Home-Living: skills related to functioning within a home, which include clothing care, housekeeping, property maintenance, food preparation and cooking, planning and budgeting for shopping, home safety, and daily scheduling. Related skills include orientation and behavior in the home and nearby neighborhood, communication of choices and needs, social interaction, and application of functional academics in the home.

16. Adaptive Behavior Social skills (relevant for ages 3-21) 4.Social: skills related to social exchanges with other individuals, including initiating, interacting, and terminating interaction with others; receiving and responding to pertinent situational cues; recognizing feelings; providing positive and negative feedback; regulating one's own behavior; being aware of peers and peer acceptance; gauging the amount and type of interaction with others; assisting others; forming and fostering of friendships and love; coping with demands from others; making choices; sharing; understanding honesty and fairness; controlling impulses; conforming conduct to laws; violating rules and laws; and displaying appropriate socio-sexual behavior. 5.Community Use: skills related to the appropriate use of community resources, including traveling in the community; grocery and general shopping at stores and markets; purchasing or obtaining services from other community businesses (e.g., gas stations, repair shops, doctor and dentist offices); using public transportation and public facilities, such as schools, libraries, parks and recreational areas, and streets and sidewalks; attending theaters; and visiting other cultural places and events. Related skills include behavior in the community, communication of choices and needs, social interaction, and the application of functional academics. 4.Social: skills related to social exchanges with other individuals, including initiating, interacting, and terminating interaction with others; receiving and responding to pertinent situational cues; recognizing feelings; providing positive and negative feedback; regulating one's own behavior; being aware of peers and peer acceptance; gauging the amount and type of interaction with others; assisting others; forming and fostering of friendships and love; coping with demands from others; making choices; sharing; understanding honesty and fairness; controlling impulses; conforming conduct to laws; violating rules and laws; and displaying appropriate socio-sexual behavior. 5.Community Use: skills related to the appropriate use of community resources, including traveling in the community; grocery and general shopping at stores and markets; purchasing or obtaining services from other community businesses (e.g., gas stations, repair shops, doctor and dentist offices); using public transportation and public facilities, such as schools, libraries, parks and recreational areas, and streets and sidewalks; attending theaters; and visiting other cultural places and events. Related skills include behavior in the community, communication of choices and needs, social interaction, and the application of functional academics.

17. Adaptive Behavior Self-direction (relevant for ages 6-21) 6.Self-Direction: skills related to making choices; learning and following a schedule; initiating activities appropriate to the setting, conditions, schedule, and personal interests; completing necessary or required tasks; seeking assistance when needed; resolving problems confronted in familiar and novel situations; and demonstrating appropriate assertiveness and self-advocacy skills. 7.Health and Safety: skills related to maintenance of one's health in terms of eating; illness identification, treatment, and prevention; basic first aid; sexuality; physical fitness; basic safety considerations (e.g., following rules and laws, using seat belts, crossing streets, interacting with strangers, seeking assistance); regular physical and dental check-ups; and personal habits. Related skills include protecting oneself from criminal behavior, using appropriate behavior in the community, communicating choices and needs, participating in social interactions, and applying functional academics. 8.Functional Academics: cognitive abilities and skills related to learning at school that also have direct application in one's life (e.g., writing; reading; using basic practical math concepts, basic science as it relates to awareness of the physical environment and one's health and sexuality; geography; and social studies). It is important to note that the focus of this skill area is not on grade-level academic achievement but on the acquisition of academic skills that are functional in terms of independent living. 6.Self-Direction: skills related to making choices; learning and following a schedule; initiating activities appropriate to the setting, conditions, schedule, and personal interests; completing necessary or required tasks; seeking assistance when needed; resolving problems confronted in familiar and novel situations; and demonstrating appropriate assertiveness and self-advocacy skills. 7.Health and Safety: skills related to maintenance of one's health in terms of eating; illness identification, treatment, and prevention; basic first aid; sexuality; physical fitness; basic safety considerations (e.g., following rules and laws, using seat belts, crossing streets, interacting with strangers, seeking assistance); regular physical and dental check-ups; and personal habits. Related skills include protecting oneself from criminal behavior, using appropriate behavior in the community, communicating choices and needs, participating in social interactions, and applying functional academics. 8.Functional Academics: cognitive abilities and skills related to learning at school that also have direct application in one's life (e.g., writing; reading; using basic practical math concepts, basic science as it relates to awareness of the physical environment and one's health and sexuality; geography; and social studies). It is important to note that the focus of this skill area is not on grade-level academic achievement but on the acquisition of academic skills that are functional in terms of independent living.

18. Adaptive Behavior Leisure (relevant for ages 6-21) 9.Leisure: the development of a variety of leisure and recreational interests that reflect personal preferences and choices and, if the activity will be conducted in public, age and cultural norms. Skills include choosing and self-initiating interests, using and enjoying home and community leisure and recreational activities alone and with others, playing socially with others, taking turns, terminating or refusing leisure or recreational activities, extending one's duration of participation, and expanding one's repertoire of interests, awareness, and skills. Related skills include behaving appropriately in the leisure and recreation setting, communicating choices and needs, participating in social interaction, applying functional academics, and exhibiting mobility skills. 10.Work: skills related to holding a part or full-time job or jobs in the community in terms of specific job skills, appropriate social behavior, and related work skills (e.g., completion of tasks; awareness of schedules; ability to seek assistance, take criticism, and improve skills; money management, financial resources allocation, and the application of other functional academic skills; and skills related to going to and from work, preparation for work, management of oneself while at work, and interaction with coworkers and supervisors). 9.Leisure: the development of a variety of leisure and recreational interests that reflect personal preferences and choices and, if the activity will be conducted in public, age and cultural norms. Skills include choosing and self-initiating interests, using and enjoying home and community leisure and recreational activities alone and with others, playing socially with others, taking turns, terminating or refusing leisure or recreational activities, extending one's duration of participation, and expanding one's repertoire of interests, awareness, and skills. Related skills include behaving appropriately in the leisure and recreation setting, communicating choices and needs, participating in social interaction, applying functional academics, and exhibiting mobility skills. 10.Work: skills related to holding a part or full-time job or jobs in the community in terms of specific job skills, appropriate social behavior, and related work skills (e.g., completion of tasks; awareness of schedules; ability to seek assistance, take criticism, and improve skills; money management, financial resources allocation, and the application of other functional academic skills; and skills related to going to and from work, preparation for work, management of oneself while at work, and interaction with coworkers and supervisors).

19. Adaptive Behavior Rating Scales AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale- School Edition (ABS-S:2) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale –Revised Second Edition (ABES-R2) Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-Second Edition) 2002 definition categorized the 10 adaptive areas into three Skills Areas: 1. Conceptual – includes Communication, Functional Academics, Self-Direction, Health and Safety Social – includes Social Skills and Leisure Practical – includes Self Care, Home Living, Community Use, Health and Safety and Work2002 definition categorized the 10 adaptive areas into three Skills Areas: 1. Conceptual – includes Communication, Functional Academics, Self-Direction, Health and Safety Social – includes Social Skills and Leisure Practical – includes Self Care, Home Living, Community Use, Health and Safety and Work

20. Academic Functioning The child is age 3 through 5 and has a standard score of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean on standardized or nationally-normed measures, as measured by comprehensive, individual assessments in at least 2 of the following areas: The third component is academic functioning. This component has been broken into two age ranges. The first age range would be 3 years though 5. Look at your trends from Birth to three programs.The third component is academic functioning. This component has been broken into two age ranges. The first age range would be 3 years though 5. Look at your trends from Birth to three programs.

21. Academic Functioning Academic readiness These can be defined as follows: Academic readiness includes cognitive activities such as the ability to acquire, use and retrieve information as demonstrated by the level of imitation, discrimination, representation, classification, sequencing, and problem-solving skills often observed in children's play. Evaluation tools may include the Battelle Developmental Inventory –Second Edition(BDI) , the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC), the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP-3) and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning: AGS Edition Comprehension of language or communication includes expressive language, such as the production of age appropriate content, form and use of language; receptive language such as listening, receiving and understanding language. Evaluation tools my include Preschool language Scale-Revised (PLS-3), the DAYC, the BDI and the LAP-D. Motor Skills include gross motor skills, such as the ability to move around and interact with the environment with appropriate coordination, balance and strength; or fine motor skills, such as manually controlling and manipulating objects such as toys, drawing utensils, and other useful objects in the environment. Evaluation tools may include the Peabody Motor Development Scales, the DAYC, the BDI and the LAP-D. These can be defined as follows: Academic readiness includes cognitive activities such as the ability to acquire, use and retrieve information as demonstrated by the level of imitation, discrimination, representation, classification, sequencing, and problem-solving skills often observed in children's play. Evaluation tools may include the Battelle Developmental Inventory –Second Edition(BDI) , the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC), the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP-3) and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning: AGS Edition Comprehension of language or communication includes expressive language, such as the production of age appropriate content, form and use of language; receptive language such as listening, receiving and understanding language. Evaluation tools my include Preschool language Scale-Revised (PLS-3), the DAYC, the BDI and the LAP-D. Motor Skills include gross motor skills, such as the ability to move around and interact with the environment with appropriate coordination, balance and strength; or fine motor skills, such as manually controlling and manipulating objects such as toys, drawing utensils, and other useful objects in the environment. Evaluation tools may include the Peabody Motor Development Scales, the DAYC, the BDI and the LAP-D.

22. Academic Readiness – Evaluation Tools Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI-2) Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC) Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP-3) Mullen Scales of Early Learning: AGS Edition

23. Comprehension of Language or Communication - Evaluation Tools Preschool language Scale-Revised (PLS-3) DAYC BDI-2 LAP-3

24. Motor Skills – Evaluation Tools Peabody Developmental Motor Scales DAYC BDI-2 LAP-3

25. Academic Functioning The child is age 6 through 21 and has a standard score of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean on standardized or nationally-normed measures, as measured by comprehensive, individual assessments, in; The second age range in the academic functioning component is age 6 through 21. General information has been defined as “ a series of orally presented questions that tap the child’s knowledge about common events, objects, places, and people.” (page 6 WISC III Manual, The Psychological Corp., 1991 ). It is further defined as “ the breadth and depth of knowledge of a culture, the ability to communicate one’s knowledge, identifying where objects are found and what people typically do with an object and the ability to reason using previously learned knowledge or procedures, (page 11 Woodcock-Johnson III Training Presentation Fall 2000,) It has also been defined as “A combination of the sciences, social studies and humanities… and provides a broad measure of general information on achievement in these content areas.” (Woodcock Johnson) The overall general information/general knowledge score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. For those children that cannot be tested using standardized or nationally-normed measures, the general information score can be used from the general information section on an intelligence test that has been administered to the child. The second age range in the academic functioning component is age 6 through 21. General information has been defined as “ a series of orally presented questions that tap the child’s knowledge about common events, objects, places, and people.” (page 6 WISC III Manual, The Psychological Corp., 1991 ). It is further defined as “ the breadth and depth of knowledge of a culture, the ability to communicate one’s knowledge, identifying where objects are found and what people typically do with an object and the ability to reason using previously learned knowledge or procedures, (page 11 Woodcock-Johnson III Training Presentation Fall 2000,) It has also been defined as “A combination of the sciences, social studies and humanities… and provides a broad measure of general information on achievement in these content areas.” (Woodcock Johnson) The overall general information/general knowledge score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. For those children that cannot be tested using standardized or nationally-normed measures, the general information score can be used from the general information section on an intelligence test that has been administered to the child.

26. Academic Functioning And at least 2 of the following areas: Academic functioning also includes: Written language:The overall written language score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad written language, basic writing skills, written expression Reading: The overall reading score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad reading skills, basic reading skills, reading decoding (identifying printed words and letters), reading fluency (reading printed statements), reading comprehension (reading words and supplying appropriate meanings) Math: The overall math score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad math skills, math calculations, math fluency, math applications, numerical operations, math reasoning, Academic functioning also includes: Written language:The overall written language score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad written language, basic writing skills, written expression Reading: The overall reading score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad reading skills, basic reading skills, reading decoding (identifying printed words and letters), reading fluency (reading printed statements), reading comprehension (reading words and supplying appropriate meanings) Math: The overall math score is used in determining a standard score of two or more standard deviations below the mean. The composite score may include assessments in the following areas; broad math skills, math calculations, math fluency, math applications, numerical operations, math reasoning,

27. Academic Functioning - Evaluation Tools Woodcock Johnson III NU-Tests of Achievement (WJIII NU) Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/NU (PIAT – R/NU) Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-II) Key Math3 Diagnostic Assessment Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised/NU norms (WRMT-R/NU)

28. Note Cognitive disabilities typically manifest before age 18 The current definition of Cognitive Disabilities used in the field continues to emphasize the developmental period as the time in which CD is initially manifested. The cutoff is set typically at age18 to with coincide with this philosophy and with the age of adulthood. If an etiology is known it may assist the IEP team in determining what supports and or resources may be needed to provide an appropriate program for the child. Once you have gone through this process, the IEP team will have decided that the child has or does not have an impairment in the area of cognitive disabilities . Now the IEP team must determine if the child has a need for special education. The current definition of Cognitive Disabilities used in the field continues to emphasize the developmental period as the time in which CD is initially manifested. The cutoff is set typically at age18 to with coincide with this philosophy and with the age of adulthood. If an etiology is known it may assist the IEP team in determining what supports and or resources may be needed to provide an appropriate program for the child. Once you have gone through this process, the IEP team will have decided that the child has or does not have an impairment in the area of cognitive disabilities . Now the IEP team must determine if the child has a need for special education.

29. Need for Special Education [ PI 11.35 (3)] Throughout the determination of whether the student has an impairment, the IEP team has also been discussing the student’s needs in relationship to program planning for the student. Once the IEP team has determined the impairment they now must make a decision in regards to whether the student needs special education and related services as the result of this impairment. Need for special education is an important issue that is often overlooked - A student does not “automatically “ need special education just because s/he meets the criteria for an impairment. The IEP team should ask questions such as “why does this impairment/why do these needs require special education? Does this really require special education and an IEP?” If the IEP team determines that a child has an impairment and a need for special education,the child is then considered a child with a disability. “Disability” means impairment plus need for special education The new rules have included a process to assist the IEP team in determining that the student needs special education. Throughout the determination of whether the student has an impairment, the IEP team has also been discussing the student’s needs in relationship to program planning for the student. Once the IEP team has determined the impairment they now must make a decision in regards to whether the student needs special education and related services as the result of this impairment. Need for special education is an important issue that is often overlooked - A student does not “automatically “ need special education just because s/he meets the criteria for an impairment. The IEP team should ask questions such as “why does this impairment/why do these needs require special education? Does this really require special education and an IEP?” If the IEP team determines that a child has an impairment and a need for special education,the child is then considered a child with a disability. “Disability” means impairment plus need for special education The new rules have included a process to assist the IEP team in determining that the student needs special education.

30. Need for Special Education The IEP team shall identify all of the following: The rules state that: As part of an evaluation or reevaluation conducted by the IEP team in determining whether a child is or continues to be a child with a disability, the IEP team shall identify all of the following: 1. The child’s needs that cannot be met through the regular education program as structured at the time the evaluation was conducted. When discussing this the IEP team must remember that schools have an obligation to address through regular education some level of variability in the classroom. This first consideration requires the IEP team to scrutinize the regular education environment to identify needs that cannot be met in that environment as structured. The IEP team must discuss the match -mismatch between the student’s needs and the regular education program. If there is a match between regular education and the child’s needs then the IEP team may decide that the child may have an impairment but does not need special education. If the mismatch is too great to meet the student’s needs, the IEP team’s analysis is not finished. An example of this may be a child that is unable to complete any of the assignments on their own due to difficulty of assignments, needs assistance with self-help and dressing skills. The rules state that: As part of an evaluation or reevaluation conducted by the IEP team in determining whether a child is or continues to be a child with a disability, the IEP team shall identify all of the following: 1. The child’s needs that cannot be met through the regular education program as structured at the time the evaluation was conducted. When discussing this the IEP team must remember that schools have an obligation to address through regular education some level of variability in the classroom. This first consideration requires the IEP team to scrutinize the regular education environment to identify needs that cannot be met in that environment as structured. The IEP team must discuss the match -mismatch between the student’s needs and the regular education program. If there is a match between regular education and the child’s needs then the IEP team may decide that the child may have an impairment but does not need special education. If the mismatch is too great to meet the student’s needs, the IEP team’s analysis is not finished. An example of this may be a child that is unable to complete any of the assignments on their own due to difficulty of assignments, needs assistance with self-help and dressing skills.

31. Need for Special Education Modifications, if any, in regular education, such as; The IEP team must go on to the next level of analysis. The law states the IEP team must identify: 2. Modifications, if any, that can be made in the regular education program, such as adaptation of content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to meet the child’s needs identified under par. (a) that will allow the child to access the general education curriculum and meet the educational standards that apply to all children. It is not acceptable to take the position that the student must fit into the regular education program as structured within the narrow limits. Schools have an obligation to adequately address a range of needs in all regular education programs. Flexibility, creativity and strong teaching skills are part of the analysis. As the IEP team starts to discuss modifications that may be needed in regular education they should take into consideration the following; What is involved in implementing the modification? ( Time to implement, time for training, preparation, short -term v. on-going) Can the modification be used with more students then the student being evaluated? Is this modification based on the general education classroom curriculum? The IEP team must go on to the next level of analysis. The law states the IEP team must identify: 2. Modifications, if any, that can be made in the regular education program, such as adaptation of content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to meet the child’s needs identified under par. (a) that will allow the child to access the general education curriculum and meet the educational standards that apply to all children. It is not acceptable to take the position that the student must fit into the regular education program as structured within the narrow limits. Schools have an obligation to adequately address a range of needs in all regular education programs. Flexibility, creativity and strong teaching skills are part of the analysis. As the IEP team starts to discuss modifications that may be needed in regular education they should take into consideration the following; What is involved in implementing the modification? ( Time to implement, time for training, preparation, short -term v. on-going) Can the modification be used with more students then the student being evaluated? Is this modification based on the general education classroom curriculum?

32. Need for Special Education Modifications, if any, in regular education, that allow the child: Examples of adaptation of content include; large print or fewer items on worksheets, provide low readability texts, provide taped texts. Examples of adaptation of methodology include; changing how a concept is taught, such as teaching strategies needed to complete activities, using books on tape, providing instruction in a variety of ways (visual, auditory, tactile). Examples of delivery of instruction include; small v large group instruction. Remember as the IEP team is reviewing the modifications that can be made in regular education that these will allow the student to access the general education curriculum and meet the educational standards that apply to all students . Changes that do not alter the expectations or general content of what is being taught are still considered the general education curriculum. If options can be provided relatively easily within the general education curriculum to address the child’s needs and allow them to access the general curriculum and meet the standards that apply to all children, the child is likely not to demonstrate a need for special education. Examples of adaptation of content include; large print or fewer items on worksheets, provide low readability texts, provide taped texts. Examples of adaptation of methodology include; changing how a concept is taught, such as teaching strategies needed to complete activities, using books on tape, providing instruction in a variety of ways (visual, auditory, tactile). Examples of delivery of instruction include; small v large group instruction. Remember as the IEP team is reviewing the modifications that can be made in regular education that these will allow the student to access the general education curriculum and meet the educational standards that apply to all students . Changes that do not alter the expectations or general content of what is being taught are still considered the general education curriculum. If options can be provided relatively easily within the general education curriculum to address the child’s needs and allow them to access the general curriculum and meet the standards that apply to all children, the child is likely not to demonstrate a need for special education.

33. Need for Special Education Additions or modifications, if any, not provided in general curriculum, including: The last consideration the IEP team needs to address are modifications or additions which are not provided through general education curriculum. The law states the IEP team must identify: 3. Additions or modifications, if any, that the child needs which are not provided through the general education curriculum, including replacement content, expanded core curriculum or other supports. Does the student have needs that are not met in regular education even after that environment is carefully scrutinized and appropriate modifications are explored? If so, as the IEP team considers the student’s needs, they will need to identify any instruction and supports outside of the regular education curriculum that the student would need. Examples of replacement content include a life-skills curriculum, functional academic curriculum. Examples of expanded core curriculum include a community -based work experience, social skills class, home-living class. Examples of other supports include Special Olympics, Very Special Arts, Developmental Disabilities County programs. The last consideration the IEP team needs to address are modifications or additions which are not provided through general education curriculum. The law states the IEP team must identify: 3. Additions or modifications, if any, that the child needs which are not provided through the general education curriculum, including replacement content, expanded core curriculum or other supports. Does the student have needs that are not met in regular education even after that environment is carefully scrutinized and appropriate modifications are explored? If so, as the IEP team considers the student’s needs, they will need to identify any instruction and supports outside of the regular education curriculum that the student would need. Examples of replacement content include a life-skills curriculum, functional academic curriculum. Examples of expanded core curriculum include a community -based work experience, social skills class, home-living class. Examples of other supports include Special Olympics, Very Special Arts, Developmental Disabilities County programs.

34. Resources American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2010, Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports, Washington D.C. The basis for this presentation was the AAIAA Book 2010 and AAMR book (1992 and 2002) and workbook (1992). The basis for this presentation was the AAIAA Book 2010 and AAMR book (1992 and 2002) and workbook (1992).

35. Questions Any questions?Any questions?

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