THE WORLD AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. syllabus.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
People’s experiences of life and their ways of thinking differed according to:
The urban lived in overcrowded conditions, either in dormitories at their workplace or in overcrowded housing nearby. Some lived as many as 30 to a room in houses converted into multiple flats. Often a family holding the main lease would sublet its space, sharing their living conditions with others as they could not afford to pay the rent on separate family housing. Privacy was difficult. Unsanitary conditions led to disease.
During the decades surrounding the turn of the century, great cities like Brussels, Paris, Milan, London and Berlin became thriving embodiments of modern life. But many artists revealed disturbing undersides to these urban centres.
The 1913 canvas, The City, by German expressionist artist Jacob Steinhardt (1887-1968) is one apt example. In this painting, throngs of people and modern streetcars push through the city boulevards at night. Electric lights from street lamps and store windows blaze; around corners, people half-disappear into shadows. In the left foreground, a man sleeps, perhaps dreaming. Above him, a distracted nude woman (probably a prostitute) sits framed at a window, while above her haunting figures reveal and lean out to ogle the action. Buildings loom over the people below. The scene evokes the frenzy, decadence and danger of the modern city – the dark side of the years leading up to the “Great War”
CONSIDER: How this painting suggests the stresses of city life during the years before World War I.
Leon Frederic (1856-1940), for a time Belgium’s most famous painter, tried to encompass all stages of a worker’s life in this large 1895 triptych.
CONSIDER: Whether this seems like a realistic depiction of workers’ lives; how in content and tone, a corresponding depiction of middle-class lives might look.
This term has a number of shades of meaning.
Elsewhere people lived in small states dominated by local nobles such as in the areas of modern Italy and Germany
OR people were a part of large empires, such as the Austrian or Ottoman empires which were made up of many nationalities.
A third key element of liberalism was support for a free enterprise capitalist economy, without any interference from government. The efficient operation of capitalism would create employment and wealth in which all society could share.