THE WORLD AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. syllabus.
In the countryside, poverty resulted from the seasonal nature of much of the available work.
WHAT DO THESE SOURCES INDICATE ABOUT WORKING CONDITIONS UNDER INDUSTRIALISATION?
During the decades surrounding the turn of the century, great cities like Brussels, Paris, Milan, London and Berlin became thriving embodiments of modern life. But many artists revealed disturbing undersides to these urban centres.
The 1913 canvas, The City, by German expressionist artist Jacob Steinhardt (1887-1968) is one apt example. In this painting, throngs of people and modern streetcars push through the city boulevards at night. Electric lights from street lamps and store windows blaze; around corners, people half-disappear into shadows. In the left foreground, a man sleeps, perhaps dreaming. Above him, a distracted nude woman (probably a prostitute) sits framed at a window, while above her haunting figures reveal and lean out to ogle the action. Buildings loom over the people below. The scene evokes the frenzy, decadence and danger of the modern city – the dark side of the years leading up to the “Great War”
CONSIDER: How this painting suggests the stresses of city life during the years before World War I.
The Stages of a Worker’s Life (Leon Frederic) UNDER INDUSTRIALISATION?
Leon Frederic (1856-1940), for a time Belgium’s most famous painter, tried to encompass all stages of a worker’s life in this large 1895 triptych.
In the foreground of the central panel, children on the right play cards while on the left they carry and nibble bread. Their parents and young couples stand just behind them; in the background are the aged members of the working class whose ultimate fate is marked by the distant but approaching funeral coach.
The left side panel depicts the man’s work world, where men of all ages, from adolescence to old age, engage in manual labour or observe it. In the foreground they are digging while in the middle ground they struggle with heavy beams. Behind them are factories where they work.
The right side panel shows the women’s world, all mothering and nurturing with babies in their arms and at their breasts. Behind them are market stalls where they shop. Here is a vision of workers’ lives in a nutshell; hard labour for men, childrearing and food preparation for women, and at the end old age and death for all.
CONSIDER: Whether this seems like a realistic depiction of workers’ lives; how in content and tone, a corresponding depiction of middle-class lives might look.
This term has a number of shades of meaning.
In traditional societies a sense of nationalism was not strong; many people knew no other loyalty than to their local landlord. At the beginning of the 19th Century, there were only a few nations in Europe.
Elsewhere people lived in small states dominated by local nobles such as in the areas of modern Italy and Germany
OR people were a part of large empires, such as the Austrian or Ottoman empires which were made up of many nationalities.