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Group 6. CHIPS: PRODUCTION AND DESIGN. -Production. -Microprocessor architecture. -Specific processor-specs. How chips are made. To create a microchip we first start with sand and carbon, that become wafer. Then through different processes we start creating our chip on the wafer.

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Group 6



-Microprocessor architecture

-Specific processor-specs

How chips are made
How chips are made

  • To create a microchip we first start with sand and carbon, that become wafer.

  • Then through different processes we start creating our chip on the wafer.

Process steps
Process Steps

1.Standard Clean

2.Wet or Dry Oxidation


4.Boron Deposition

5.Boron Drive

6.Phosporous Deposition

Microprocessor architecture
Microprocessor Architecture

Chip – The name of the microprocessor, with preproduction nicknames or codenames in parentheses ().

Microprocessor (MPU) – This term is commonly used to describe the CPU. More specifically, it refers to the part of the CPU that actually does the work, since many CPUs now contain L1 and L2 caches on-chip.

Microprocessor architecture1
Microprocessor Architecture

MHz – The clock speed of the chip. MHZ stands for MegaHertz, which is 1 million hertz. Hertz are cycles / second. The speed of the chip is the bus speed multiplied by the “multiplier”.

Hertz – A measure of speed. One hertz means one time per second, so one megahertz (MHz) means 1 million times per second. This is the common measure of speed for processors and electronic activities inside a computer.

Microprocessor architecture2
Microprocessor Architecture

Bus Speed – This refers to the processor bus speed in MHz, or front sidebus, as it is sometimes referred to. This is the speed of communication between the microprocessor and the chipset. The memory bus speed may be different, and is determined by the chipset.

Bus – A bus is simply a data path between devices. The computer’s system bus is what peripherals use to send and receive data from the processor and main memory.

Microprocessor architecture3
Microprocessor Architecture

Front Side Bus (FSB) - This refers to the speed of the bus between the microprocessor and memory. In some architectures, such as Socket 7, the speed of the front side bus also determines how fast the microprocessor can talk to it's external L2 cache. Other architectures, such as Slot 1, have a dedicated L2 cache bus that is faster than the FSB, so it is not limited by the normally slower memory speed.

Microprocessor architecture4
Microprocessor Architecture

L1 Cache - This is the amount of high speed L1 cache memory in KB or KiloBytes that is built into the processor core. L1 cache is always on the microprocessor core, and is often split into Instruction cache (for recently used processor instructions) and Data cache (for recently used data). L1 cache typically runs at the speed of the processor.

L1 cache (Level 1 Cache) - This is a small piece of very fast memory that's on the CPU chip itself, usually meant for holding instructions as they get executed. It sits between the CPU registers and the L2 cache.

Microprocessor architecture5
Microprocessor Architecture

L2 Cache - This is the amount of high speed L2 cache memory either on or off of the processor. On-chip L2 cache is typically on the same die as the processor. Off chip L2 cache typically runs between 1/3 the speed and up to the full speed of the processor. We will mention L2 cache speeds in MHz when available.

Microprocessor architecture6
Microprocessor Architecture

L3 Cache - If applicable, L3 cache refers to yet a third level of cache that may or may not be on the processor die. L3 cache sits between L2 cache and main memory. It is not included in architectures, and will only be listed when if applicable.

L3 Cache (Level 3 Cache) - This type of cache is becoming more prevalent as microprocessor manufacturers ship more processors with L1 and L2 cache built into the processor. L3 cache is then the extra cache that sits on the motherboard between the processor and main memory, since the processor already contains L1 and L2 cache.

Microprocessor architecture7
Microprocessor Architecture

Mics – Describes in microns, the size of the line widths of the buses. The microchip is made up of many small paths that lead electrical signals through the chip. The smaller the number is, the more transistors can be placed on the microchip, in a set amount of space.

Micron - This is the length of one millionth of a meter, or 1/1000000 meters. This length is also referred to as a micrometer. There is also a computer hardware company called Micron.

Microprocessor architecture8
Microprocessor Architecture

Die Size - The die size is the size of the microprocessor in square millimeters. Smaller die sizes mean that chips are cheaper to produce, and manufacturers get more microchips on a wafer. Having L2 cache on the processor die increases the die size.

Die size - Simply put, this is the two dimensional (length by width) measurement of a microprocessor. The thickness of the processor is not considered. For example, a die size may be 384 square millimeters.

Microprocessor architecture9
Microprocessor Architecture

Trans - This refers to the amount of transistors that make up the microprocessor. The transistor count is based on the amount of transistors in the chip itself as well as the amount of transistors in the L1 cache, and L2 cache if it is on the microprocessor die.

Transistor - An electronic device that acts like an electrically activated switch but has no moving parts so it can switch millions of times per second.

Microprocessor architecture10
Microprocessor Architecture

Form Factor - This is the type of connection used to mount the microprocessor on a motherboard or daughterboard. Typically this is either a type of Slot, where the processor is on a circuitboard cartridge that plugs into the motherboard, or it can be one of several types of Sockets (PGA, PPGA, FC-PGA, or unnamed sockets like 462-pin BGA, etc.).

Slot 1 - This is a cartridge slot found on motherboards that accepts an SECC or SECC2 cartridge. It works with Intel's Pentium II and III chips, and some Celerons were also shipped that use slot 1. Most Celerons today use Socket 370.

Microprocessor architecture11
Microprocessor Architecture

Volts - When placed in a motherboard, the chip should receive this voltage. A lower voltage may not allow it to operate, and a higher voltage may cause it to overheat. Current ranges are typically 1.8 volts up to 3.5 volts.

Watts - A watt is the maximum amount of power dissipated by the chip, which is directly related to the amount of heat it gives off. Wattages may range from under 1 watt all the way up to 100 watts and over.

Watt - This is the electrical unit of power, which is energy transferred over a unit of time. Often it is used to describe the amount of heat generated by a microprocessor.

Operating volts

CPU Bus Clock

Mics (micron lengths)

L1 Cache & L1 Data bus width

Die size

L2 Cache & L2 Data bus width

Number of Transistors

Operating volts

CPU Bus Clock

Mics (micron lengths)

L1 Cache & L1 Data bus width

Die size

L2 Cache & L2 Data bus width

Intel NetBurst Micro architecture

Number of Transistors

(Hyper Pipelined Architecture)

Athlon Vs. Pentium

Which one is BETTER?

…… Depends