ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND ELECTRON CONFIGURATION. CHAPTER THREE . PAGE 73 LET’S READ SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT!!!! EXCITED ATOMS AND THE FOURTH OF JULY !!!!!. Dalton's Atomic Theory 1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
LET’S READ SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT!!!!
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Law of definite proportions
Sometimes called Proust's Law, states that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. An equivalent statement is the law of constant composition, which states that all samples of a given chemical compound have the same elemental composition by mass. For example, oxygen makes up about 8/9 of the mass of any sample of pure water, while hydrogen makes up the remaining 1/9 of the mass.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
DEFINITION OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
MOLE - SI unit for amount
in exactly 1 mole of a pure substance.
NUCLEUS – Gold Foil Experiment
Protons - positively charged particles
Neutrons – neutrally charged particles
ELECTRON CLOUD – Cathode Ray Tube
Electrons – Negatively charged
J. J. Thomson was born in a suburb
of Manchester, England, in 1856.
He studied mathematics at Trinity
College and became a professor
there. His pioneering research into
the nature of cathode rays led to
his discovery of the electron. He won the Nobel Prize
in physics in 1906, and was knighted in 1908. He died
in Cambridge in 1940.
J J Thomson Research – Electron
In 1894, Thomson began studying cathode rays, which are glowing beams of light that follow an electrical discharge in a high-vacuum tube. It was a popular research topic among physicists at the time because the nature of cathode rays was unclear.
Thomson devised better equipment and methods than had been used before. When he passed the rays through the vacuum, he was able to measure the angle at which they were deflected and calculate the ratio of the electrical charge to the mass of the particles. He discovered that the ratio was the same regardless of what type of gas was used, which led him to conclude that the particles that made up the gases were universal. He determined that all matter is made up of tiny particles that are much smaller than atoms. He originally called these particles 'corpuscles,' although they are now called electrons. This discovery upended the prevailing theory that the atom was the smallest fundamental unit.
J J Thomas’s Cathode Ray Experiment Setup
was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand,
the fourth child and second son in a family of seven sons
and five daughters. His father James Rutherford, a
Scottish wheelwright, emigrated to New Zealand with
Ernest's grandfather and the whole family in 1842.
His mother was an English schoolteacher, who, with
Her widowed mother, also went to live there in 1855.Ernest received his early education in Government
schools and at the age of 16 entered Nelson Collegiate School.
In 1889 he was awarded a University scholarship and he
proceeded to the University of New Zealand, Wellington,
where he entered Canterbury College*. He graduated M.A. in
1893 with a double first in Mathematics and Physical Science
and he continued with research work at the College for a short
time, receiving the B.Sc. degree the following year. That same year, 1894, he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Science Scholarship,
Before Ernest Rutherford's landmark experiment with a few pieces of metal foil and alpha particles, the structure of the atom was thought to correspond with the plum pudding model. In summary, the plum pudding model was hypothesized by J.J. Thomson (the discoverer of the electron) who described an atom as being a large positively charged body that contained small, free-floating, negatively charged particles called electrons. The plum pudding model also states that the negative charge of the electrons is equivalent to the positive charge of the rest of the atom. The two charges cancel each other causing and cause the electrical charge of the atom to be zero (or neutral). The faulty aspect of this model is that it was construed before the nucleus of an atom (and its composition) was discovered; which is where Rutherford's research comes in.
The number of protons in nucleus
The number of protons plus the number of neutrons
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Example: oxygen is composed of oxygen atoms
Example: O represents oxygen
O2 two atoms of oxygen
The closer two charges come together, the greater the force between them.
Number of protons always the same
Number of electrons-always the same
Number of neutrons differ
atomic mass (decimal number on Periodic table)
speed, wavelength, frequency
Speed- speed of light : 2.998 X 108m/s. (с)
Wavelength- distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave. ()
Frequency- number of waves that pass a stationary point.( γ )
frequency x wavelength = speed of light
Page 95: Figure 3-23
GROUND STATE- lowest energy state of quantized energy
EXCITED STATE- atom in a higher energy state
QUANTUM NUMBER- a number with certain definite values.
ORBITALS- a region of an atom in which there is a high probability of finding one or more electrons.
s, p, d, f
n = principal quantum number
energy level- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
larger the number- farther the orbit is out
l = indicates orbit e- is located, n→ n−1
so if n=1, then l=0 or 1.
l = 0 corresponds to s orbital
l = 1 ῎῎῎ p orbital
l = 2 d orbital
l = 3 f orbital
m = dependent on l quantum number
whole number value
l = 1 then m = -1, 0, 1 ( p orbital)
l = 2 then m = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 (d orbital)
ms= spin quantum number, +1/2 or -1/2
Quantum theory tells us exact energy of the e-, but only the probability that the e- will be in that particular region.
Page 98 in text shows shapes of orbitals
e- fill the lowest energy orbitals first
This tells us the electron configuration of an atom.
1. Determine the total number of electrons an atom possesses.
2. Fill orbitals in order of increasing energy.
3. Make sure the total number of electrons in the electron configuration equals the atomic number. *as long as it’s not an ion
Let’s try a few!!!!!
Sc, K, P, B, In, Ba
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