Part 2. Transcription 1. Transcription 2. Translation 1. Translation 2. Mutations. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 200. 200. 200. 200. 200. 300. 300. 300. 300. 300. 400. 400. 400. 400. 400. 500. 500. 500. 500. 500.
Where does transcription take place? (name part of eukaryotic cell)What are copied from DNA during transcription?
In the nucleus!Produces RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)Transcription #1 100
What are the sites on Prokaryotes called that regulate gene expression during transcription?
Why is gene regulation important in Eukaryotes?
Regulatory Sites Without these gene expression could not be controlled (turn on or off) in Prokaryotes
Gene regulation in Eukaryotes allows for cell specialization
Transcription #1 200
What is the function of the promoter?
Binding site of the RNA Polymerase to begin making mRNA
Transcription #1 300
An ______________is a group of genes that work together to regulate transcription in prokaryotes
OperonTranscription #1 400
How does the lac repressor turn off the lac genes in the lac operon?
By binding to the operator and blocking transcription by RNA Polymerase Transcription #1 500
Transcribe this DNA strand into mRNA…T A C A C G C A G T C A (DNA)
T A C A C G C A G A T T (DNA)A U G U G C G U C U A A(mRNA)Each codon has 3 nucleotides eachTranscription #2 100
What is the entire process of transcription and translation called?
Protein SynthesisTranscription #2 200
When an mRNA is being transcribed, what is edited out and what is kept in?
Transcription #2 300
What is this object leaving the nucleus after transcription?
Transcription #2 400
What is the part of a Eukaryote’s DNA that signals where the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?
The TATA Box is the promoter
region in eukaryotes
Transcription #2 500
Where does the mRNA go for translation to occur?
Out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the ribosomeTranslation #1 100
Once the mRNA is in the cytoplasm, what RNA recognizes and wraps around the mRNA?
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)Translation #1 200
Where does the ribosome (rRNA) begin reading the mRNA? What amino acid does this code for?
Begins at the “Start” codon AUG
(Remember: It’s the month we start school)
AUG codes for Methionine (Met)
Translation #1 300
What happens to the amino acids that are brought to the ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?
The amino acid joins the growing polypeptide chain (protein). The tRNA then leaves to find another amino acid.
Translation #1 400
When do tRNA’s stop bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation?
When a STOP codon is reached on the mRNA strand.Translation #1 500
Polypeptide chain released into cytoplasm
and the ribosome falls off of the mRNA which
is disposed of by the cell.
Translation #1 500
Translate this mRNA
A U G U G C G U C U A A
mRNA A U G U G C G U C U A AAmino Acids
This is TRANSLATION!!!
Translation #2 100
What does this wheel show?
What process is taking place when you use this wheel?
Translation #2 200
Shows the GENETIC CODEThe process is TRANSLATION
What is the max possible number of codons for a single amino acid?
How many codons specify for the amino acid Threonine? What are they?
6 is the maximum number or codons possible for an amino acid!
Translation #2 300
What brings the amino acid to the ribosome to make proteins during translation?
Translation #2 400
How many different codons are there?How many different amino acids are there?
Different amino acids
Translation #2 500
Not a real picture
What is a gene mutation?
Change in nucleotide sequenceMutations for 100
Of the following mutations, which one of these is not a gene mutation?SubstitutionDeletion InsertionInversion
Gene mutation in mice.
Substitution = Point Mutation (gene)Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)
Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation
I bet he can catch 3x more flies!
Mutations for 200
What type of gene mutation is it when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted?
The amino acid sequence is no longer the same because the codons have shifted
Frame Shift Gene Mutation
Mutations for 300
Name all types of chromosomal mutations
Mutations for 400
What genes control the basic plan for where organs and tissues are to go in an embryo?
NOT a real picture!!!
Mutations for 500