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Part 2. Transcription 1. Transcription 2. Translation 1. Translation 2. Mutations. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 200. 200. 200. 200. 200. 300. 300. 300. 300. 300. 400. 400. 400. 400. 400. 500. 500. 500. 500. 500.

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Part 2


Transcription

1

Transcription

2

Translation

1

Translation

2

Mutations

100

100

100

100

100

200

200

200

200

200

300

300

300

300

300

400

400

400

400

400

500

500

500

500

500


Where does transcription take place? (name part of eukaryotic cell)What are copied from DNA during transcription?


In the nucleus!Produces RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)Transcription #1 100


What are the sites on Prokaryotes called that regulate gene expression during transcription?

Why is gene regulation important in Eukaryotes?


Regulatory

Sites

Regulatory Sites Without these gene expression could not be controlled (turn on or off) in Prokaryotes

Gene regulation in Eukaryotes allows for cell specialization

Transcription #1 200


What is the function of the promoter?


Binding site of the RNA Polymerase to begin making mRNA

Transcription #1 300


An ______________is a group of genes that work together to regulate transcription in prokaryotes


OperonTranscription #1 400


How does the lac repressor turn off the lac genes in the lac operon?


By binding to the operator and blocking transcription by RNA Polymerase Transcription #1 500


Transcribe this DNA strand into mRNA…T A C A C G C A G T C A (DNA)

mRNA


T A C A C G C A G A T T (DNA)A U G U G C G U C U A A(mRNA)Each codon has 3 nucleotides eachTranscription #2 100


What is the entire process of transcription and translation called?


Protein SynthesisTranscription #2 200


When an mRNA is being transcribed, what is edited out and what is kept in?


Introns

Out!

“junk”

Transcription #2 300

Exons In!


What is this object leaving the nucleus after transcription?


Transcription #2 400

mRNA


What is the part of a Eukaryote’s DNA that signals where the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?

Hint:


The TATA Box is the promoter

region in eukaryotes

for transcription.

Transcription #2 500


Where does the mRNA go for translation to occur?


Out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the ribosomeTranslation #1 100

Cytoplasm


Once the mRNA is in the cytoplasm, what RNA recognizes and wraps around the mRNA?


rRNA (ribosomal RNA)Translation #1 200


Where does the ribosome (rRNA) begin reading the mRNA? What amino acid does this code for?


Begins at the “Start” codon AUG

(Remember: It’s the month we start school)

AUG codes for Methionine (Met)

Translation #1 300


What happens to the amino acids that are brought to the ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?

Amino

Acid


Amino

Acid

The amino acid joins the growing polypeptide chain (protein). The tRNA then leaves to find another amino acid.

Translation #1 400


When do tRNA’s stop bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation?


When a STOP codon is reached on the mRNA strand.Translation #1 500

Stop

codon

Polypeptide chain released into cytoplasm

and the ribosome falls off of the mRNA which

is disposed of by the cell.

Translation #1 500


Translate this mRNA

A U G U G C G U C U A A


mRNA A U G U G C G U C U A AAmino Acids

Met

Cys

Val

Stop

This is TRANSLATION!!!

Translation #2 100


What does this wheel show?

What process is taking place when you use this wheel?


Translation #2 200

Shows the GENETIC CODEThe process is TRANSLATION


What is the max possible number of codons for a single amino acid?

How many codons specify for the amino acid Threonine? What are they?


Threonine

ACG

ACA

ACCACU

6 is the maximum number or codons possible for an amino acid!

Translation #2 300


What brings the amino acid to the ribosome to make proteins during translation?


tRNA

brings

1

Amino

Acid

Translation #2 400


How many different codons are there?How many different amino acids are there?


Different codons

Different amino acids

Translation #2 500


Not a real picture

What is a gene mutation?


Change in nucleotide sequenceMutations for 100


Of the following mutations, which one of these is not a gene mutation?SubstitutionDeletion InsertionInversion

Gene mutation in mice.


Substitution = Point Mutation (gene)Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)

Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation

I bet he can catch 3x more flies!

Mutations for 200


What type of gene mutation is it when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted?


The amino acid sequence is no longer the same because the codons have shifted

Frame Shift Gene Mutation

Mutations for 300


Name all types of chromosomal mutations


Mutations for 400


What genes control the basic plan for where organs and tissues are to go in an embryo?


Hox Genes

NOT a real picture!!!

Mutations for 500


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