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Part 2. Transcription 1. Transcription 2. Translation 1. Translation 2. Mutations. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 200. 200. 200. 200. 200. 300. 300. 300. 300. 300. 400. 400. 400. 400. 400. 500. 500. 500. 500. 500.

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Transcription

1

Transcription

2

Translation

1

Translation

2

Mutations

100

100

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100

100

200

200

200

200

200

300

300

300

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400

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500

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Where does transcription take place? (name part of eukaryotic cell)What are copied from DNA during transcription?


In the nucleus produces rna mrna trna rrna transcription 1 100

In the eukaryotic cell)nucleus!Produces RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)Transcription #1 100


What are the sites on eukaryotic cell)Prokaryotes called that regulate gene expression during transcription?

Why is gene regulation important in Eukaryotes?


Regulatory eukaryotic cell)

Sites

Regulatory Sites Without these gene expression could not be controlled (turn on or off) in Prokaryotes

Gene regulation in Eukaryotes allows for cell specialization

Transcription #1 200



Binding site of the rna polymerase to begin making mrna

Binding site of the eukaryotic cell)RNA Polymerase to begin making mRNA

Transcription #1 300


An is a group of genes that work together to regulate transcription in prokaryotes

An ______________is a group of genes that work together to regulate transcription in prokaryotes


Operon transcription 1 400

Operon regulate transcription in Transcription #1 400


How does the lac repressor turn regulate transcription in off the lac genes in the lac operon?



Transcribe this dna strand into mrna t a c a c g c a g t c a dna

Transcribe this DNA strand into Polymerase mRNA…T A C A C G C A G T C A (DNA)

mRNA


T A C A C G C A G A T T Polymerase (DNA)A U G U G C G U C U A A(mRNA)Each codon has 3 nucleotides eachTranscription #2 100


What is the entire process of transcription and translation called

What is the entire Polymerase process of transcription and translation called?


Protein synthesis transcription 2 200

Protein Synthesis Polymerase Transcription #2 200


When an mRNA is being transcribed, what is Polymerase edited out and what is kept in?


Transcription 2 300

Introns Polymerase

Out!

“junk”

Transcription #2 300

Exons In!



Transcription 2 400

Transcription #2 400 transcription?

mRNA


What is the part of a Eukaryote’s DNA that signals where the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?

Hint:


Transcription 2 500

The TATA Box is the promoter the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?

region in eukaryotes

for transcription.

Transcription #2 500


Where does the mrna go for translation to occur

Where does the mRNA go for translation to occur? the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?


Out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the ribosome translation 1 100

Out of the nucleus and into the the RNA polymerase is to begin transcribing?cytoplasm to the ribosomeTranslation #1 100

Cytoplasm



Rrna ribosomal rna translation 1 200

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) wraps around the mRNA?Translation #1 200


Where does the ribosome rrna begin reading the mrna what amino acid does this code for

Where does the ribosome (rRNA) begin reading the mRNA? wraps around the mRNA? What amino acid does this code for?


Translation 1 300

Begins at the “ wraps around the mRNA?Start” codon AUG

(Remember: It’s the month we start school)

AUG codes for Methionine (Met)

Translation #1 300


What happens to the amino acids that are brought to the ribosome by the trna s during translation

What happens to the amino acids that are brought to the ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?

Amino

Acid


Amino ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?

Acid

The amino acid joins the growing polypeptide chain (protein). The tRNA then leaves to find another amino acid.

Translation #1 400


When do tRNA’s ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation? stop bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation?


When a stop codon is reached on the mrna strand translation 1 500

When a ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation? STOP codon is reached on the mRNA strand.Translation #1 500

Stop

codon

Polypeptide chain released into cytoplasm

and the ribosome falls off of the mRNA which

is disposed of by the cell.

Translation #1 500


Translate ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation? this mRNA

A U G U G C G U C U A A


Mrna a u g u g c g u c u a a amino acids

mRNA ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation? A U G U G C G U C U A AAmino Acids

Met

Cys

Val

Stop

This is TRANSLATION!!!

Translation #2 100


What does this wheel show

What does this wheel show? ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?

What process is taking place when you use this wheel?


Translation 2 200

Translation #2 200 ribosome by the tRNA’s during translation?

Shows the GENETIC CODEThe process is TRANSLATION


How many codons specify for the amino acid threonine what are they

What is the max possible number of codons for a single amino acid?

How many codons specify for the amino acid Threonine? What are they?


Translation 2 300

Threonine acid?

ACG

ACA

ACCACU

6 is the maximum number or codons possible for an amino acid!

Translation #2 300



tRNA during translation?

brings

1

Amino

Acid

Translation #2 400


How many different codons are there how many different amino acids are there

How many different codons are there? during translation?How many different amino acids are there?


Different codons during translation?

Different amino acids

Translation #2 500


What is a gene mutation

Not a real picture during translation?

What is a gene mutation?


Change in nucleotide sequence mutations for 100

Change in nucleotide sequence during translation?Mutations for 100


Of the following mutations, which one of these is during translation?not a gene mutation?SubstitutionDeletion InsertionInversion

Gene mutation in mice.


Substitution = Point Mutation (gene) during translation?Deletion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)Insertion = Frame Shift Mutation (gene)

Inversion = Chromosomal Mutation

I bet he can catch 3x more flies!

Mutations for 200



Frame shift gene mutation

The amino acid sequence is no longer the same because the codons have shifted

Frame Shift Gene Mutation

Mutations for 300


Name all types of chromosomal mutations

Name all types of chromosomal mutations


Mutations for 400 chromosomal mutations



Hox Genes tissues are to go in an embryo?

NOT a real picture!!!

Mutations for 500


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