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Welcome back to Physics 215

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### Welcome back to Physics 215

### Stopped-pendulum demo

Today’s agenda:

More Work-kinetic energy theorem

Non-conservative forces

Power

Current homework assignment

- HW8:
- Knight Textbook Ch.10: 56, 76
- Ch.11: 50, 64, 74
- due Wednesday, Nov. 3rd in recitation

Improved definition of work

- For forces, write F FAB
- Thus W = Fs WAB = FAB DsA is
work done on A by B as A undergoes displacement DsA

- Work-kinetic energy theorem:
Wnet,A = SBWAB = DK

Non-constant force …

Work done in small interval Dx

DW = F Dx

Total W done from A to B SF Dx =

Area under curve!

F

F(x)

x

B

A

Dx

The Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem

Wnet = DK = Kf - Ki

The net work done on an object is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the object.

Suppose a tennis ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. The tennis ball is moving much faster, but both have the same momentum (mv), and you exert the same force to stop each.

Which of the following statements is correct?

1. It takes equal distances to stop each ball.

2. It takes equal time intervals to stop each ball.

3. Both of the above.

4. Neither of the above.

Suppose a tennis ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. Both have the same momentum (mv), and you exert the same force to stop each.

It takes equal time intervals to stop each ball.

The distance taken for the bowling ball to stop is

the distance taken for the tennis ball to stop.

1. less than.

2. equal to

3. greater than

Two carts of different mass are accelerated from rest you. Both have the on a low-friction track by the same force for the same time interval.

Cart B has greater mass than cart A (mB > mA). The final speed of cart A is greater than that of cart B (vA > vB).

After the force has stopped acting on the carts, the kinetic energy of cart B is

1. less than the kinetic energy of cart A (KB < KA).

2. equal to the kinetic energy of cart A (KB = KA).

3. greater than the kinetic energy of cart A (KB > KA).

4. “Can’t tell.”

Revised definitions for you. Both have the Work and Kinetic Energy

Work done on object 1 by object 2:

Kinetic energy of an object:

Scalar (or “dot”) product of vectors you. Both have the

The scalar product is a way to combine two vectors to obtain a number (or scalar). It is indicated by a dot (•) between the two vectors.

(Note: component of A in direction n is just A•n) [Review in Section 1.10 of textbook]

Is the scalar (“dot”) product of the two vectors you. Both have the

1. positive

2. negative

3. equal to zero

4. “Can’t tell.”

Is the scalar (“dot”) product of the two vectors you. Both have the

1. positive

2. negative

3. equal to zero

4. “Can’t tell.”

Two identical blocks slide down two frictionless ramps. Both blocks start from the same height, but block A is on a steeper incline than block B.

The speed of block A at the bottom of its ramp is

1. less than the speed of block B.

2. equal to the speed of block B.

3. greater than the speed of block B.

4. “Can’t tell.”

Solution Both blocks start from the same height, but block A is on a steeper incline than block B.

- Which forces do work on block?
- Which, if any, are constant?
- What is F•Ds for motion?

Work done by gravity Both blocks start from the same height, but block A is on a steeper incline than block B.

Work W = -mg j•Ds

Therefore,

W = -mgDh

N does no work!

N

Ds

mg

j

i

A block is released from rest on a frictionless incline. The block travels to the bottom of the left incline and then moves up the right incline which is steeper than the left side.

Solution The block travels to the bottom of the left incline and then moves up the right incline which is steeper than the left side.

- Change in kinetic energy on way down depends on initial height (work is path independent)
- Equal amount of KE must be lost going up. By W-KE, this means work done by gravity equal and opposite (and path independent).
- Therefore same height reached!

- Pendulum swings to same height on other side of vertical The block travels to the bottom of the left incline and then moves up the right incline which is steeper than the left side.
- What if pendulum string is impeded ~1/2-way along its length? Will height on other side of vertical be:
- Greater than original height
- Same as original height
- Less than original height?

Work done on an object by gravity The block travels to the bottom of the left incline and then moves up the right incline which is steeper than the left side.

W(on object by earth) = – m gDh,

where Dh = hfinal – hinitial is the change in height.

Defining gravitational potential energy The block travels to the bottom of the left incline and then moves up the right incline which is steeper than the left side.

The change in gravitational potential energy of the object-earth system is just another name for the negative value of the work done on an object by the earth.

In a new experiment, a cart is initially moving. The hand is exerting a force on the cart in a direction opposite to the motion, and the cart slows down.

During this experiment, is the hand doing work on the cart?

1. Yes, positive work.

2. Yes, negative work.

3. No. (The hand does zero work.)

4. “Can’t tell.”

Curved ramp is exerting a force on the cart in a direction opposite to the motion, and the cart slows down.

s =

W = F•s =

Work done by gravity between 2

fixed pts does not depend on path

taken!

Work done by gravitational force in moving some

object along any path is independent of the path

depending only on the change in vertical height

Hot wheels demo is exerting a force on the cart in a direction opposite to the motion, and the cart slows down.

One hot wheels car, car A, rolls down the incline and travels straight ahead, while the other car, B, goes through a loop at the bottom of the incline. When the cars reach the end of their respective tracks, the relative speeds will be:

vA > vB

vA < vB

vA = vB

Can’t tell

A person carries a book horizontally at constant speed. The work done on the book by the person’s hand is

1. positive

2. negative

3. equal to zero

4. “Can’t tell.”

A person lifts a book at constant speed. Since the force exerted on the book by the person’s hand is in the same direction as the displacement of the book, the work (W1) done on the book by the person’s hand is positive.

The work done on the book by the earth is:

1. negative and equal in absolute value to W1

2. negative and less in absolute value than W1

3. positive and equal in absolute value to W1

4. positive and less in absolute value than W1

A person lifts a book at constant speed. The work ( exerted on the book by the person’s hand is in the same direction as the displacement of the book, the work (W1) done on the book by the person’s hand is positive.

Work done on the book by the earth:

Net work done on the book:

Change in kinetic energy of the book:

Work-Kinetic Energy theorem exerted on the book by the person’s hand is in the same direction as the displacement of the book, the work ((final statement)

W1net =Fnet •Ds1 = Kf - Ki

A person lifts two books (each of mass exerted on the book by the person’s hand is in the same direction as the displacement of the book, the work (m) at constant speed. The work done on the upper book by the lower book is positive. Its magnitude is W = m g Ds.

Is there work done on the lower bookby the upper book?

1. Yes, positive work.

2. Yes, negative work.

3. No, zero work.

4. No, since the lower book does work on the upper book, this is not a meaningful question.

A person lifts two books at constant speed. The work done on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

Work done on lower book by upper book:

Net work done on the lower book:

Change in kinetic energy of the lower book:

Conservative forces on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- If the work done by some force (e.g. gravity) does not depend on path the force is called conservative.
- Then gravitational potential energy Ug only depends on (vertical) position of object Ug = Ug(h)
- Elastic forces also conservative – elastic potential energy U = (1/2)kx2...

Nonconservative forces on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- friction, air resistance,...
- Potential energies can only be defined for conservative forces

Nonconservative forces on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- Can do work, but cannot be represented by a potential energy function
- Total mechanical energy can now change due to work done by nonconservative force
- For example, frictional force leads to decrease of total mechanical energy -- energy converted to heat, or internal energy
- Total energy = total mech. energy + internal energy -- is conserved

Conservation of (mechanical) energy on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- If we are dealing with a potential energy corresponding to a conservative force
0 = DK+DU

- Or K + U = constant

Conservation of on the upper book by the lower book is positive.total energy

The total energy of an object or system is said to be conserved if the sum of all energies (including those outside of mechanics that have not yet been discussed) never changes.

This is believed always to be true.

Demo on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

Vertical spring and mass with damping

- Damping from air resistance
- Amplitude of oscillations decays
- Oscillations still about x = -xeq

Many forces on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- For a particle which is subject to several (conservative) forces F1, F2 …
E = (1/2)mv2 + U1 + U2 +… is constant

- Principle called
Conservation of total mechanical energy

Summary on the upper book by the lower book is positive.

- Total (mechanical) energy of an isolated system is constant in time.
- Must be no non-conservative forces
- Must sum over all conservative forces

- A compressed spring fires a ping pong ball vertically upward. If the spring is compressed by 1 cm initially the ball reaches a height of 2 m above the spring. What height would the ball reach if the spring were compressed by just 0.5 cm? (neglect air resistance)
- 2 m
- 1 m
- 0.5 m
- we do not have sufficient information to calculate the new height

A 5.00-kg package slides 1.50 m down a long ramp that is inclined at 12.0 below the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and the ramp is mk = 0.310. Calculate: (a) the work done on the package by friction; (b) the work done on the package by gravity; (c) the work done on the package by the normal force; (d) the total work done on the package. (e) If the package has a speed of 2.20 m/s at the top of the ramp, what is its speed after sliding 1.50 m down the ramp?

Summary inclined at 12.0

- Work is defined as dot product of force with displacement vector
- Each individual force on an object gives rise to work done
- The kinetic energy only changes if net work is done on the object, which requires a net force

A sports car accelerates from zero to 30 mph in 1.5 s. How long does it take to accelerate from zero to 60 mph, assuming the power (=DW / Dt) of the engine to be constant?

(Neglect losses due to friction and air drag.)

1. 2.25 s

2. 3.0 s

3. 4.5 s

4. 6.0 s

Power in terms of force and velocity long does it take to accelerate from zero to 60 mph, assuming the power (=

A locomotive accelerates a train from rest to a final speed of 40 mph by delivering constant power. If we assume that there are no losses due to air drag or friction, the acceleration of the train (while it is speeding up) is

1. decreasing

2. constant

3. increasing

A ball is whirled around a horizontal circle at constant speed.

If air drag forces can be neglected, the power expended by the hand is:

1. positive

2. negative

3. zero

4. “Can’t tell.”

Reading assignment speed.

- Extended objects, Center of mass
- Chapter 12 in textbook

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