In and out of the ecas compliance strategy of an international shipping line
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In and out of the ECAs compliance strategy of an international shipping line. jai. Setting the scene. Principles of Conduct Protecting the environment

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In and out of the ecas compliance strategy of an international shipping line

In and out of the ECAs compliance strategy of an international shipping line

jai

Regulatory Affairs

Maersk Maritime Technology


Setting the scene

Setting the scene

Principles of Conduct

Protecting the environment

We protect the environment by exercising constant care and optimizing our operations, and endeavour to use natural resources responsibly and reduce our environmental impact.

We are committed to countering climate change by striving to minimize greenhouse gas emissions from our business activities.

Sustainability Report 2009

The A.P.Moller–Maersk Group

Regulatory Affairs


Setting the scene1

Setting the scene

Nomenclature:

MARPOL: IMO convention for prevention of pollution

SECA: Sulphur Emission Control Area

SOx: Sulphuric Oxides (SO, SO2, SO3, SO4)

NOx: Nitrogen Oxides (NO, NO2)

PM: Particulate Matter

HFO:Heavy Fuel Oil

LSFO:Low Sulphur (Heavy) Fuel Oil

HSFO: High Sulphur (Heavy) Fuel Oil

MDO: Marine Diesel Oil

MGO: Marine Gas Oil

LNG:Liquefied Natural Gas

PAGE 3

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Setting the scene2

Setting the scene

Air emission regulations adopted by IMO in 1997 as a new Annex VI to MARPOL.

The regulations entered into force in May 2005.

1st SECA enforced in May 2006 – the Baltic Sea.

2nd SECA enforced in August/ November 2007 – the North Sea.

PAGE 4

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Setting the scene3

Setting the scene

  • 3rd SECA will be the North American ECA

  • Will enter into force in August 2012

  • Will control both SOx and NOx

Regulatory Affairs


Present regime

Present regime:

  • Max sulphur content within SECA (IMO):

    • 1.5%

    • 1.0% from 1 July 2010

    • 0.1% from 1 January 2015

  • California (CARB) rules (24 NM from shore):

    • 1.5% MGO, or

    • 0.5% MDO

    • After 2012: 0.1%

  • California at berth regulations on NOx and PM

    • Gradually increasing requirements

  • Maersk Line voluntarily followed the CARB rules from 2006 -> 2009.

    • Maersk Line used 0.2% MGO

Regulatory Affairs


Problem areas

Problem areas

Present ECA regime:

Change from HSFO to LSFO

After 2015:

Change from HSFO to MGO

Business as usual?

Rocket science?

PAGE 7

  • Up till around 1980 all ships with large diesel engines changed from HFO to distillate fuel upon entering port and back again after leaving port.

  • Newer engines re-circulate the HFO while in port and need not change to distillate fuel.

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Crew training

Crew Training

  • Crew advised to follow change over procedure as per engine manufacturer instructions

  • Change over considered ’Normal Engineering Practice’

  • No special training provided

  • Maersk crews are trained to ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems

Regulatory Affairs


Emissions reductions achieved in california

Emissions Reductions Achieved in California

SOx 95 %

PM86 %

NOx12 %

SOx

PM

NOx

Data based on Vessel Calls at Los Angeles and Oakland Ports switching from 3% S fuel to 0.2% S fuel

After 2015 the switch will be from 1.0% S fuel to 0.1% S fuel.

Regulatory Affairs


Present compliance strategy in europe

Present compliance strategy in Europe

  • Use compliant fuel:

    • Three types of fuel must be carried on board

  • After 2015:

    • Two types of fuel must be carried on board

  • Alternative solution?

Regulatory Affairs


Alternative methods of compliance

Alternative methods of compliance

Scrubber technology

LNG

Bio fuels

Cold ironing

New technologies?

PAGE 11

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Alternative methods of compliance1

Alternative methods of compliance

Scrubber technology

PAGE 12

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


In and out of the ecas compliance strategy of an international shipping line

Alternative fuels

LNG as fuel

LNG tank

HFO tank (shown only for size comparison)

  • Bunker infrastructure to be developed

    • The LNG price is about 1.4 * HFO price (according to Wartsila January 2010)

  • Required volume for fuel tanks about 3-4 times more compared to HFO tanks

    • LNG takes up double the volume compared to HFO

    • Storage in pressurised tanks results in “broken space”

  • CO2 – about 23% reductions

    • Assuming that no unburned methane escapes through the exhaust system (gas slip).

    • The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of methane is 25 times higher than CO2.

    • The gas slip percentage is under discussion, but not zero.

  • SOx – 100% reduction

  • NOx – 92% reduction

Maersk Maritime Technology

Slide no. 13


In and out of the ecas compliance strategy of an international shipping line

Alternative fuels

Biodiesel

  • Test effects of using biodiesel onboard a container vessel (Maersk Kalmar)

    • Effects on air emissions (CO2, NOx, SO2)

    • Long term storage effects (corrosion, water)

  • Joint project between Maersk Line, Tankers, Drilling, Supply Service

  • Testing will begin primo June 2010

  • Vessel will be designed to be able to test other biofuels in the future

Maersk Maritime Technology

Slide no. 14


Cold ironing

Cold ironing

PAGE 15

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Nuclear power

Nuclear power?

PAGE 16

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Muscle power

Muscle power?

PAGE 17

Regulatory Affairs

September 10, 2014


Contact information

Niels Bjørn Mortensen

Director, Regulatory Affairs

Maersk Maritime Technology

A.P. Moller – Maersk

50 Esplanaden

DK 1098 Copenhagen

Denmark

[email protected]

+45 3363 4482

+45 4045 6850

Contact Information

Regulatory Affairs


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