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Writing Reactions. --for unbalanced students. A few things to recall--. Synthesis Decomposition Single replacement Double replacement Other redox. A+B  AB. AB  A+B. A+BC  AC+B Or D+BC  C+BD. AB+CD  AD+BC. AB+CD  a whole bunch of other things. A few things to recall--.

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writing reactions

Writing Reactions

--for unbalanced students

a few things to recall
A few things to recall--
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single replacement
  • Double replacement
  • Other redox
slide5
A+BC  AC+B

Or

D+BC  C+BD

a few things to recall1
A few things to recall--
  • Metallic oxides and water make hydroxides
  • M2O+H2O2MOH
  • MO+H2OM(OH)2
  • 2M2O3+3H2O 2M(OH)3
a few things to recall2
A few things to recall--
  • Nonmetallic oxides and water make acids
  • YO + H2O H2YO2
  • YO2 + H2OH2YO3
  • YO3 + H2OH2YO4
  • 2Y2O5 + H2O2HYO3
a few things to recall3
A few things to recall--
  • In a single replacement reaction—the more reactive element replaces the less reactive
  • X +MYY +MX

means X is a more reactive nonmetal than Y

  • A + BCB + AC

means A is a more reactive metal than B

a few things to recall4
A few things to recall--
  • In a double replacement reaction, you need a molecule or a precipitate formed
  • AB +CD AD + BC

if AD and BC are both soluble salts

a few things to recall5
A few things to recall--
  • Carbonates decompose with heat or acid
a few things to recall6
A few things to recall--
  • In a redox reaction, hydrogen ions and water can be reactants or products.
a few things to recall7
A few things to recall--
  • In a redox reaction, you have to balance the charge as well
a few things to recall8
A few things to recall--
  • Net ionic equations show dissociated ions, spectators are omitted
  • AB +CD AD + BC, if AD is soluble,
  • Write: B- +C+ BC
predict the products
Predict the products
  • AKA: Descriptive chemistry
  • You are given to reactants. What products are formed? Go!
predict the products1
Predict the products
  • Old Rules—
    • 8 sets, you choose 5
    • Don’t balance
    • Use a net ionic equation
  • New rules–
    • Three sets, do all of them
    • Balance
    • Use a net ionic equation
    • Answer a question
predict the products2
Predict the products
  • We will practice old rules first.
what do you see
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.
what do you see1
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

It will burn

what do you see2
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Can only be oxidized

what do you see3
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Look for a precipitate

what do you see4
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Look for a precipitate

what do you see5
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Can be reduced

what do you see6
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Weak base

what do you see7
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Can be reduced

what do you see8
What do you see?
  • 1. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen.
  • 2. A strip or copper metal is added to a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • 3. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium phosphate are mixed.
  • 4. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed.
  • 5. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a solution of cold dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • 6. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 7. Asolution of tin (II) chloride is added to an acidified solution of potassium permanganate
  • 8. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

It’s complex

arrhenius acids and bases
Arrhenius acids and bases
  • Substances that ionize in water to form H+ ions are acids.
  • Substances that ionize in water to form OH-ions are bases.
br nsted lowry definition
BrØnsted-Lowry Definition
  • Substances that donate a proton (H+ ion) in a reaction are acids.
  • Substances that accept a proton (H+ ion) are bases.
lewis definition
Lewis Definition
  • Substances that accept an electron pair in a reaction are acids.
  • Substances that donate an electron pair are bases.
conjugates
Conjugates
  • After an acid has donated a proton, the rest of the species is the conjugate base.

HAA- + H+

  • After a base has accepted a proton, the resulting species is the conjugate acid.

B- + H+ HB

please recall
Please recall:
  • Strongacids and bases dissociate completely in a water environment. Weak acids and bases do not.
  • Strong acids= nitric, hydrochloric, sulfuric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, perchloric
  • Strong bases-Group 1 & 2 hydroxides—(group 2’s might not dissolve well)
we did not use but you still have to know
We did not use:(but you still have to know)

These ions:Precipitate like:

  • MnO4-, O2-2,CN- ,ClO4-like NO3-
  • F- like Cl-
  • Mn+2,Fe+2 like Fe+3
  • C2O4-2 like CO3-2
  • S-2 like OH-
  • Hg2+2  like Ag+
  • (oxides do not exist in a water solution!)
h oh h 2 o
H+ + OH-H2O
  • Just remember–

One H+ neutralizes one OH-

  • It’s true for strong and weak acids and bases.
h oh h 2 o1
H+ + OH-H2O
  • Just remember–

One H+ neutralizes one OH-

  • It’s true for strong and weak acids and bases.

M1V1=M2V2

Moles of H+

Moles of OH-

a titration
A titration
  • If 23.56 ml of a .115M NaOH solution neutralizes 10.00 ml of HCl solution, what is the concentration of the original acid?
another titration
Another titration
  • If 14.78 ml of a .115M H2SO4 solution neutralizes 25.00 ml of NaOH solution, what is the concentration of the base?
another titration1
Another titration
  • If 14.78 ml of a .115M H2SO4 solution neutralizes 25.00 ml of NaOH solution, what is the concentration of the base?

Did you catch that?

dilution
Dilution
  • Add more solvent to a solution, the concentration decreases.

M1V1=M2V2

Moles of solute

Moles of solute

a dilution
A dilution
  • If 150 ml of a .30 M NaOH solution is diluted to 250 ml, what is the new concentration of the base?
another dilution
Another dilution
  • What volume of solvent must be added to 100. ml of 1.5 M NaCl to make a solution that is .30 M [Cl-]?
another dilution1
Another dilution
  • What volume of solvent must be added to 100. ml of 1.5 M NaCl to make a solution that is .30 M [Cl-]?

Did you catch that?

Not “to what new volume must it be diluted?”

slide45
“Life is pain, Your Highness.”

Wesley, from the Princess Bride by William Goldman

what is cl
What is [Cl-]?
  • 150 ml of .2 M NaCl,
  • 250 ml of .4 M AlCl3
  • 200 ml of .35 M MgCl2 and
  • 100 ml H20

--are mixed (assume volumes are additive, that is, Vfinal=700 ml)

what will happen
What will happen…

...if you add, to 1.0 L H2O at room temperature, the following substances, in order:

5 g Na(s)

5 g Mg(s)

5 g NaCl(s)

5 g Zn(C2H3O2)2(s)

5 g HCl(g)

5 g H3PO4(l)

ad