Naming Ionic Compounds
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Naming Ionic Compounds. Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. Metals. Nonmetals. gain / accept. Nonmetals _____________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Negative ions are called ___________. _. anions. Metals ________________ electrons.

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Naming Ionic Compounds

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Naming ionic compounds

Naming Ionic Compounds


Naming ionic compounds

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Metals

Nonmetals

gain / accept

Nonmetals _____________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Negative ions are called ___________.

_

anions

Metals ________________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Positive ions are called ___________.

lose / donate

+

cations


Naming ionic compounds

Remember that the charge of an ion can be determined by its place on the Periodic Table.

+1

0

+4

or

-4

+2

-2

-1

+3

-3

Look for the Roman Numeral!


Naming ionic compounds

For each elements on your notes, predict the charge of its most common ion using the periodic table.

-3

0

+2

+2

-1

0

+1

+2

-1

-2

+1

-1

-2

+1

-3

+1

-1

0


Naming ionic compounds

Rules for Naming Ions

When metals lose electrons they become ions, but their name does not change.

Na

Na++ e-

electron

sodium

sodium

Mg

Mg+2+ 2e-

2 electrons

magnesium

magnesium


Naming ionic compounds

Rules for Naming Ions

When nonmetals gain electrons they become ions, and their name does change.

F + e-

F-

fluoride

fluorine

electron

S + 2e-

S-2

sulfur

2 electrons

sulfide


Naming ionic compounds

Rules for Naming Ions

1. The names of metals do not change.

2. Changing the name of nonmetals:

root of element name + -ide = name of ion

Examples:

The name of chlorine’s ion:

chlor- + -ide = chloride

The name of nitrogen’s ion:

nitr- + -ide = nitride


Naming ionic compounds

Examples of naming ions:

The name of calcium’s ion:

calcium

(The names of metals don’t change!)

The name of oxygen’s ion:

ox- + -ide = oxide

The name of aluminum’s ion:

aluminum

(The names of metals don’t change!)


Naming ionic compounds

Write the name of each of the ions on your notes.

sulfide

lithium

nitride

bromide

potassium

chloride

oxide

hydrogen (+), hydride (-)


Naming ionic compounds

There are also ions that form after elements have shared electrons. These ions are known as polyatomic ions, and each polyatomic ion already has a name.


Naming ionic compounds

Write the name of each of the polyatomic ions on your notes using your reference sheet as a guide.

sulfate

carbonate

permanganate

sulfite

hydroxide

nitrate


Naming ionic compounds

Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds

CaBr2

calcium

bromide

Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy.


Naming ionic compounds

1. NaF

2. MgO

sodium

fluoride

magnesium

oxide

3. SrCl2

4. Li2S

strontium

chloride

lithium

sulfide

5. CaO

6. KI

calcium

oxide

potassium

iodide


Naming ionic compounds

When polyatomic ions are used, simply use the name of the polyatomic ion in the compound.

1. NH4F

2. CaSO4

ammonium

fluoride

calcium

sulfate

3. Mg(NO3)2

4. NaOH

magnesium

nitrate

sodium

hydroxide


Naming ionic compounds

Name the ionic compounds that are found on your notes.

calcium chloride

potassium sulfide

potassium permanganate

barium oxide

ammonium chloride

cesium chloride

magnesium sulfate

sodium bromide

aluminum phosphide


Naming ionic compounds

You can also determine the formula of an ionic compound from its name. To do this, you will need to use what you already know about the Periodic Table.

magnesium iodide

Mg

I

+2

-

MgI2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the name of the polyatomic ion.

strontium nitrate

Sr

NO3

+2

-

Sr(NO3)2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming.

Decide which name goes with each ion.

nitrate

N-3

NO3-

nitride

sulfide

S-2

SO3-2

sulfite

phosphate

P-3

PO4-3

phosphide


Naming ionic compounds

Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable.

What are the charges of the transition metals below:

+2

+3

Iron (II) _______Iron (III) _______

Copper (II) _______Copper (I) _______

Tin (IV) _______Tin (II) _______

Lead (II) _______Lead (IV) _______

+2

+1

+4

+2

+2

+4

We know they are positive because metals are always positive.


Naming ionic compounds

The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound.

iron (III) oxide

Fe

O

+3

-2

Fe2O3

Step 1: Write the symbol of the cation.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the anion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the roman numerals.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

Helpful Hint:

If the ion ends in –ide, it is probably from the periodic table. If the ion ends in –ate or –ite, it is a polyatomic ion.

Examples:

sulfate

sulfide

sulfite

SO4-2

S-2

SO3-2

nitride

nitrite

nitrate

N-3

NO2-

NO3-


Naming ionic compounds

Write the formula of each of the ionic compounds named on your notes.

KI

SnCl4

BaSO4

NaCl

SrS

CuCO3

AlBr3

Li3N


Naming ionic compounds

Naming Binary Covalent Compounds


Naming ionic compounds

shared electrons

Nonmetals

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond

Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond.

This creates a ___________.

share

molecule


Naming ionic compounds

Determining if a compound is

ionic or covalent is easy.

What elements do covalent compounds contain?

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.

What elements do ionic compounds contain?

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.


Naming ionic compounds

Decide whether the compounds on your notes are ionic or covalent.

C

C

I

I

C

I


Naming ionic compounds

Important Facts:

Because hydrogen only has 1 proton and 1 electron, it behaves differently than any other element on the periodic table of elements.

Hydrogen can donate its 1 electron.

H+

H2

Hydrogen can share electrons.

Hydrogen can gain 1 electron.

H-

This means that hydrogen can act as either a metal or a nonmetal!


Naming ionic compounds

There are 7 elements that exist in nature as diatomic molecules.

What elements exist as diatomic molecules?

H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2


Naming ionic compounds

There are millions of covalent compounds. These can be classified into many different types of compounds. Each type of compound has a different set of rules for naming. You will be learning about the easiest type of covalent compound to name:

Binary Covalent Compounds

  • Binary means 2.

What does binary mean?

Binary covalent compounds are between 2 different nonmetals.


Naming ionic compounds

Nonmetals can share electrons in many different ways. This means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.

carbon and oxygen

phosphorous and chlorine

CO

CO2

PCl3

PCl5

nitrogen and oxygen

N2O4

N2O3

Each of these contains a different ratio of elements. Because of this, we have to make sure that the name of the compound explains the correct ratio.


Naming ionic compounds

To show the correct ratio of elements, we use prefixes.


Naming ionic compounds

Steps for Naming

Binary Covalent Compounds

N2O4

dinitrogen

tetroxide

nitrogen

oxide

Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal.

Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide.

Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present.


Naming ionic compounds

Rules for Using Prefixes

Rule 1: Prefixes are only for BINARY COVALENT compounds.

Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:CO2 is carbon dioxide, and not monocarbon dioxide.

Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide.

Example:CO is carbon monoxide, and not carbon monooxide.


Naming ionic compounds

How would you write each of the prefixes in front of oxide?

Remember: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide. Leave -i alone.

mono- ____________di- ____________

tri- ____________tetra- ____________

penta- ____________hexa- ____________

hepta- ____________octa- ____________

nona- ____________deca- ____________

monoxide

dioxide

tetroxide

trioxide

pentoxide

hexoxide

octoxide

heptoxide

decoxide

nonoxide


Naming ionic compounds

Name the binary covalent compounds that are found on your notes.

carbon dioxide

carbon disulfide

phosphorous tribromide

phosphorous pentabromide

diphosphorouspentasulfide

dinitrogenmonosulfide

silicon disulfide

nitrogen tribromide

dinitrogen tetrachloride


Naming ionic compounds

Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula.

dinitrogen tetrafluoride

N2

F4

Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.


Naming ionic compounds

Write the formulas of the binary covalent compounds in your notes.

CCl4

IF7

PCl5

N2O4

N2O

PCl3

CS

CO

BH3

ICl

S2Br6

S4N4

H2O

SiS2

PI3

ClF5

NO2

NCl3


Naming ionic compounds

Naming Ionic and Covalent Compounds Review


Naming ionic compounds

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

This is what creates compounds!

gain / accept

Nonmetals _____________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Negative ions are called ___________.

_

anions

Metals ________________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Positive ions are called ___________.

lose / donate

+

cations


Naming ionic compounds

What elements do ionic compounds contain?

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.

Nonmetals

Metals


Naming ionic compounds

Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds

MgCl2

magnesium

chloride

Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion.

Remember that we change the name of nonmetal ions to –ide.

YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy.


Naming ionic compounds

shared electrons

Nonmetals

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond

Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond.

This creates a ___________.

share

molecule


Naming ionic compounds

What elements do covalent compounds contain?

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.

Nonmetals


Naming ionic compounds

Steps for Naming Covalent Compounds

P2S4

phosphorous

tetrasulfide

sulfide

diphosphorous

Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal.

Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide.

Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present.


Naming ionic compounds

Rules for Using Prefixes with

Covalent Compounds

Rule 1: Prefixes are only for COVALENT compounds.

Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:PCl3 is phosphorous trichloride, and not monophosphorous trichloride.

Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide.

Example:N2O4 is nitrogen tetroxide, and not nitrogen tetraoxide.


Naming ionic compounds

Determining if a compound is

ionic or covalent is easy.

What elements do ionic compounds contain?

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.

What elements do covalent compounds contain?

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.


Naming ionic compounds

Decide whether the compounds on your notes are ionic or covalent.

C

I

I

I

C

I

I

C

I

C

C

I


Naming ionic compounds

Once you decide if a compound is ionic or covalent you know whether or not to use prefixes.

Only COVALENT COMPOUNDS use PREFIXES!

Do NOT make the mistake of using prefixes with ionic compounds. You will be forced to decide between answer choices with and without prefixes on your exam. Know the difference!


Naming ionic compounds

Steps for Naming a Compound

Step 1: Decide if the compound is ionic or covalent.

Step 2: Write the name of the first element as it appears on the periodic table, change the name of the second element to end with -ide.

Ioniccompounds are finished at this point.

Step 3: If, and only if, the compound is covalent, add prefixes.


Naming ionic compounds

Remember, if polyatomic ions appear in an ionic compound, simply use the name of the ion as it appears in the table of polyatomic ions.

1. NH4Cl

2. MgSO3

ammonium

chloride

magnesium

sulfite

3. Ca(NO2)2

4. KOH

calcium

nitrite

potassium

hydroxide


Naming ionic compounds

Write the names of the compounds that appear on your notes.

carbon tetrabromide

carbon monosulfide

sodium permanganate

strontium iodide

potassium sulfate

dinitrogentetrasulfide

magnesium nitrate

silicon tetrachloride

diphosphorouspentoxide


Naming ionic compounds

Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound from Its Name

potassium sulfide

K

S

+

-2

K2S

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the table of polyatomic ions found on the naming compounds reference sheet.

barium sulfate

The charges are the same, so they cancel!

Ba

SO4

+2

-2

BaSO4

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming.

Decide which name goes with each ion.

sulfide

S-2

SO4-2

sulfate

phosphate

P-3

PO4-3

phosphide

nitrite

N-3

NO2-

nitride


Naming ionic compounds

Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable.

What are the charges of the transition metals below:

d-block

+4

+2

Tin (IV) _______Tin (II) _______

Lead (II) _______Lead (IV) _______

Iron (II) _______Iron (III) _______

Copper (II) _______Copper (I) _______

+4

+2

+2

+3

+1

+2

We know they are positive because metals are always positive.


Naming ionic compounds

The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound.

copper (II) nitrate

Cu

NO3

+2

-

Cu(NO3)2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table, polyatomic ions table, or the roman numerals.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Naming ionic compounds

Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula.

dihydrogen monoxide

H2

O

Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.


Naming ionic compounds

Remember: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:carbon dioxide

CO2


Naming ionic compounds

Write the formulas of the compounds that appear on your notes based on their names.

HCl

BaF2

SnS

N2O

CS2

S2Cl6

Na3PO4

PtCl2


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