Naming Ionic Compounds
Download
1 / 59

Naming Ionic Compounds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 114 Views
  • Uploaded on

Naming Ionic Compounds. Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. Metals. Nonmetals. gain / accept. Nonmetals _____________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Negative ions are called ___________. _. anions. Metals ________________ electrons.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Naming Ionic Compounds ' - raquel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Metals

Nonmetals

gain / accept

Nonmetals _____________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Negative ions are called ___________.

_

anions

Metals ________________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Positive ions are called ___________.

lose / donate

+

cations


Remember that the charge of an ion can be determined by its place on the Periodic Table.

+1

0

+4

or

-4

+2

-2

-1

+3

-3

Look for the Roman Numeral!


For each elements on your notes, predict the charge of its most common ion using the periodic table.

-3

0

+2

+2

-1

0

+1

+2

-1

-2

+1

-1

-2

+1

-3

+1

-1

0


Rules for Naming Ions most common ion using the periodic table.

When metals lose electrons they become ions, but their name does not change.

Na

Na+ + e-

electron

sodium

sodium

Mg

Mg+2 + 2e-

2 electrons

magnesium

magnesium


Rules for Naming Ions most common ion using the periodic table.

When nonmetals gain electrons they become ions, and their name does change.

F + e-

F-

fluoride

fluorine

electron

S + 2e-

S-2

sulfur

2 electrons

sulfide


Rules for Naming Ions most common ion using the periodic table.

1. The names of metals do not change.

2. Changing the name of nonmetals:

root of element name + -ide = name of ion

Examples:

The name of chlorine’s ion:

chlor- + -ide = chloride

The name of nitrogen’s ion:

nitr- + -ide = nitride


Examples of naming ions: most common ion using the periodic table.

The name of calcium’s ion:

calcium

(The names of metals don’t change!)

The name of oxygen’s ion:

ox- + -ide = oxide

The name of aluminum’s ion:

aluminum

(The names of metals don’t change!)


Write the name of each of the ions on your notes. most common ion using the periodic table.

sulfide

lithium

nitride

bromide

potassium

chloride

oxide

hydrogen (+), hydride (-)


There are also ions that form after elements have most common ion using the periodic table.shared electrons. These ions are known as polyatomic ions, and each polyatomic ion already has a name.


Write the name of each of the polyatomic ions on your notes using your reference sheet as a guide.

sulfate

carbonate

permanganate

sulfite

hydroxide

nitrate


Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds using your reference sheet as a guide.

CaBr2

calcium

bromide

Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy.


1. using your reference sheet as a guide.NaF

2. MgO

sodium

fluoride

magnesium

oxide

3. SrCl2

4. Li2S

strontium

chloride

lithium

sulfide

5. CaO

6. KI

calcium

oxide

potassium

iodide


When using your reference sheet as a guide.polyatomic ions are used, simply use the name of the polyatomic ion in the compound.

1. NH4F

2. CaSO4

ammonium

fluoride

calcium

sulfate

3. Mg(NO3)2

4. NaOH

magnesium

nitrate

sodium

hydroxide


Name the ionic compounds that are found on your notes. using your reference sheet as a guide.

calcium chloride

potassium sulfide

potassium permanganate

barium oxide

ammonium chloride

cesium chloride

magnesium sulfate

sodium bromide

aluminum phosphide


You can also determine the formula of an ionic compound from its name. To do this, you will need to use what you already know about the Periodic Table.

magnesium iodide

Mg

I

+2

-

MgI2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the name of the polyatomic ion.

strontium nitrate

Sr

NO3

+2

-

Sr(NO3)2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming.

Decide which name goes with each ion.

nitrate

N-3

NO3-

nitride

sulfide

S-2

SO3-2

sulfite

phosphate

P-3

PO4-3

phosphide


Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable.

What are the charges of the transition metals below:

+2

+3

Iron (II) _______ Iron (III) _______

Copper (II) _______ Copper (I) _______

Tin (IV) _______ Tin (II) _______

Lead (II) _______ Lead (IV) _______

+2

+1

+4

+2

+2

+4

We know they are positive because metals are always positive.


The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound.

iron (III) oxide

Fe

O

+3

-2

Fe2O3

Step 1: Write the symbol of the cation.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the anion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the roman numerals.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Helpful Hint: are determining the formula of an ionic compound.

If the ion ends in –ide, it is probably from the periodic table. If the ion ends in –ate or –ite, it is a polyatomic ion.

Examples:

sulfate

sulfide

sulfite

SO4-2

S-2

SO3-2

nitride

nitrite

nitrate

N-3

NO2-

NO3-


Write the formula of each of the ionic compounds named on your notes.

KI

SnCl4

BaSO4

NaCl

SrS

CuCO3

AlBr3

Li3N



shared electrons your notes.

Nonmetals

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond

Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond.

This creates a ___________.

share

molecule


Determining if a compound is your notes.

ionic or covalent is easy.

What elements do covalent compounds contain?

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.

What elements do ionic compounds contain?

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.



Important Facts: covalent.

Because hydrogen only has 1 proton and 1 electron, it behaves differently than any other element on the periodic table of elements.

Hydrogen can donate its 1 electron.

H+

H2

Hydrogen can share electrons.

Hydrogen can gain 1 electron.

H-

This means that hydrogen can act as either a metal or a nonmetal!


There are 7 elements that exist in nature as covalent.diatomic molecules.

What elements exist as diatomic molecules?

H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2


There are millions of covalent compounds. These can be classified into many different types of compounds. Each type of compound has a different set of rules for naming. You will be learning about the easiest type of covalent compound to name:

Binary Covalent Compounds

  • Binary means 2.

What does binary mean?

Binary covalent compounds are between 2 different nonmetals.


Nonmetals can share electrons in many different ways. This means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.

carbon and oxygen

phosphorous and chlorine

CO

CO2

PCl3

PCl5

nitrogen and oxygen

N2O4

N2O3

Each of these contains a different ratio of elements. Because of this, we have to make sure that the name of the compound explains the correct ratio.


To show the correct ratio of elements, we use means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.prefixes.


Steps for Naming means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.

Binary Covalent Compounds

N2O4

dinitrogen

tetroxide

nitrogen

oxide

Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal.

Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide.

Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present.


Rules for Using Prefixes means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.

Rule 1: Prefixes are only for BINARY COVALENT compounds.

Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:CO2 is carbon dioxide, and not monocarbon dioxide.

Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide.

Example:CO is carbon monoxide, and not carbon monooxide.


How would you write each of the prefixes in front of oxide? means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together.

Remember: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide. Leave -i alone.

mono- ____________ di- ____________

tri- ____________ tetra- ____________

penta- ____________ hexa- ____________

hepta- ____________ octa- ____________

nona- ____________ deca- ____________

monoxide

dioxide

tetroxide

trioxide

pentoxide

hexoxide

octoxide

heptoxide

decoxide

nonoxide


Name the binary covalent compounds that are found on your notes.

carbon dioxide

carbon disulfide

phosphorous tribromide

phosphorous pentabromide

diphosphorouspentasulfide

dinitrogenmonosulfide

silicon disulfide

nitrogen tribromide

dinitrogen tetrachloride


Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula.

dinitrogen tetrafluoride

N2

F4

Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.


Write the formulas of the binary covalent compounds in your notes.

CCl4

IF7

PCl5

N2O4

N2O

PCl3

CS

CO

BH3

ICl

S2Br6

S4N4

H2O

SiS2

PI3

ClF5

NO2

NCl3



Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

This is what creates compounds!

gain / accept

Nonmetals _____________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Negative ions are called ___________.

_

anions

Metals ________________ electrons.

This gives them a ____ charge.

Positive ions are called ___________.

lose / donate

+

cations


What elements do ionic compounds contain? electrons.

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.

Nonmetals

Metals


Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds electrons.

MgCl2

magnesium

chloride

Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion.

Remember that we change the name of nonmetal ions to –ide.

YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy.


shared electrons electrons.

Nonmetals

Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons.

Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond

Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond.

This creates a ___________.

share

molecule


What elements do covalent compounds contain? electrons.

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.

Nonmetals


Steps for Naming Covalent Compounds electrons.

P2S4

phosphorous

tetrasulfide

sulfide

diphosphorous

Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal.

Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide.

Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present.


Rules for Using Prefixes with electrons.

Covalent Compounds

Rule 1: Prefixes are only for COVALENT compounds.

Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:PCl3 is phosphorous trichloride, and not monophosphorous trichloride.

Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide.

Example:N2O4 is nitrogen tetroxide, and not nitrogen tetraoxide.


Determining if a compound is electrons.

ionic or covalent is easy.

What elements do ionic compounds contain?

Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal.

What elements do covalent compounds contain?

Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals.



Once you decide if a compound is covalent.ionic or covalent you know whether or not to use prefixes.

Only COVALENT COMPOUNDS use PREFIXES!

Do NOT make the mistake of using prefixes with ionic compounds. You will be forced to decide between answer choices with and without prefixes on your exam. Know the difference!


Steps for Naming a Compound covalent.

Step 1: Decide if the compound is ionic or covalent.

Step 2: Write the name of the first element as it appears on the periodic table, change the name of the second element to end with -ide.

Ioniccompounds are finished at this point.

Step 3: If, and only if, the compound is covalent, add prefixes.


Remember, if covalent.polyatomic ions appear in an ionic compound, simply use the name of the ion as it appears in the table of polyatomic ions.

1. NH4Cl

2. MgSO3

ammonium

chloride

magnesium

sulfite

3. Ca(NO2)2

4. KOH

calcium

nitrite

potassium

hydroxide


Write the names of the compounds that appear on your notes. covalent.

carbon tetrabromide

carbon monosulfide

sodium permanganate

strontium iodide

potassium sulfate

dinitrogentetrasulfide

magnesium nitrate

silicon tetrachloride

diphosphorouspentoxide


Determining the Formula of an covalent.Ionic Compound from Its Name

potassium sulfide

K

S

+

-2

K2S

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the table of polyatomic ions found on the naming compounds reference sheet.

barium sulfate

The charges are the same, so they cancel!

Ba

SO4

+2

-2

BaSO4

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming.

Decide which name goes with each ion.

sulfide

S-2

SO4-2

sulfate

phosphate

P-3

PO4-3

phosphide

nitrite

N-3

NO2-

nitride


Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable.

What are the charges of the transition metals below:

d-block

+4

+2

Tin (IV) _______ Tin (II) _______

Lead (II) _______ Lead (IV) _______

Iron (II) _______ Iron (III) _______

Copper (II) _______ Copper (I) _______

+4

+2

+2

+3

+1

+2

We know they are positive because metals are always positive.


The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound.

copper (II) nitrate

Cu

NO3

+2

-

Cu(NO3)2

Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the polyatomic ion.

Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table, polyatomic ions table, or the roman numerals.

Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions.


Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula.

dihydrogen monoxide

H2

O

Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.

Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix.


Remember: of a binary The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1.

Example:carbon dioxide

CO2


Write the formulas of the compounds that appear on your notes based on their names.

HCl

BaF2

SnS

N2O

CS2

S2Cl6

Na3PO4

PtCl2


ad