Education in Pakistan
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Education in Pakistan. Dr. Waseem Anwar. Contents. PART - I Definition of Education Constitution of Pakistan PART – II Education Scenario Education Policy. Definition of Education.

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Education in Pakistan

Dr. Waseem Anwar


Contents
Contents

PART - I

  • Definition of Education

  • Constitution of Pakistan

    PART – II

  • Education Scenario

  • Education Policy


Definition of education
Definition of Education

The definition of education in common usage, that education is merely the delivery of knowledge, skills and information from teachers to students, is inadequate to capture what is really important about being and becoming educated.


The proper definition of education is the process of becoming an educated person.

Being an educated person means you have access to optimal states of mind regardless of the situation you are in.


Constitution of Pakistan becoming an educated person.


Constitution of the islamic republic of pakistan 1973 article 37 b
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b

“The State shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period”


Concurrent legislative list
Concurrent Legislative List: Article 37-b

Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centers of excellence, standard of education & Islamic education


PART – II Article 37-bEDUCATION SCENARIO


Human development index
Human Development Index Article 37-b

Country Ranking

(out of 177 countries)

2005 2006 2007

Iran 99 96 94

Sri Lanka 93 93 99

Maldives 96 98 100

India 127 126 128

Bhutan 134 135 133

Pakistan 135 134 136

Bangladesh 139 137 140

Nepal 136 138 142


Literacy rates
Literacy Rates Article 37-b

Literacy Definition

(As in 1998 Census)

“The ability of a person who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter in any language”


Literacy rates1
Literacy Rates Article 37-b

  • PAKISTAN = 55 % (Male = 67 %,Female = 42%)Province Literacy Rate

  • Punjab= 60.2%

  • Sindh = 57.7%

  • NWFP = 49.9%

  • Balochistan = 48.8%


Educational institutions by level
Educational Institutions by Level Article 37-b

Level Total Public Private

Pre-primary 1,081 287 794

Mosque school 14,123 14,035 88

Primary 122,349 105,526 16,823

Middle 38,449 14,334 24,115

Secondary 25,090 10,550 14,540

British System 28111270

NFBE 4,831 2,008 2,823

Inter & Degree Colleges1,882 1,025 857

Universities 116 59 57

Technical/ Professional1257 426 831

Vocational 3,059 916 2,143

Deeni Madaris 12,153 354 11,799

Others 3,120 2,241 879

TOTAL 227,791 151,77(67%) 76,019

(33%)


Institutions by medium of instruction
Institutions by Medium of Instruction Article 37-b

Type # of Institutions Urdu English Sindhi Others

Total 227,791 14806 2277 3416 22779

Public 151,744 103,186 3,035 33,384 12,139

Private 76,047 43,347 21,29 3,521 9,886



Challenges
Challenges Article 37-b

  • Weakened Governance

    • Fragmentation

    • Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships

  • Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers

  • Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams

  • Low level of literacy

  • Out of school children

  • Dropouts


Challenges1
Challenges Article 37-b

  • Public Private Partnership

  • In-adequate financing

  • Gender Equity

  • Poor monitoring & evaluation

  • Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary schools

  • Inconvenient school location


Salient features of national education plan
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN Article 37-b

  • Universal and Free Primary and Secondary Education

  • Promotion of Equity

  • Minimum National Standards

  • Relevance to Labour Market

  • Sector Planning

  • Financial allocation of 7% of GDP by 2018

  • Encourage Private sector

  • Link Allocations to Definition of Free Education

  • Improve Planning, Management and Implementation Capacity

  • Donor Harmonisation

  • Overcoming Fragmented Governance


Salient features of national education plan1
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN Article 37-b

  • Bridging the Public Private Divide

  • Improved Examination System

  • Introduction of Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) & inclusive education.

  • Achieve the MDG goals.

  • All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level

  • Well developed plan for expanding school facilities.

  • High priority to reducing drop out rates

  • Improved school environment

  • Career Counselling at higher secondary level

  • Develop national literacy curriculum

  • Enhance qualifications for employment as teachers


Salient features of national education plan2
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN Article 37-b

  • Pre-service & in-service teacher training

  • Accreditation and certification of teachers

  • Merit based teacher recruitment, professional development, promotions & postings

  • Curriculum development

  • Competitive publishing of textbooks and learning materials

  • District Education Boards to be established for managing schools

  • Separate management & academic cadres


Allocation of funds to education year 2009 10
Allocation of Funds to Education: Article 37-bYear 2009-10

(Rs. in million)

Continue…


(Rs. In million) Article 37-b


Future Plans for Education in Pakistan Article 37-b

1. Tripartite Partnership:

  • The role of family, the community and the State. All need to be mobilized.

    2. Free Education Upto Matriculation:

    3. Provision of Free Textbooks:

    4. Grant of Scholarships and Incentives to Girl Students:

    5. Availability and Accessibility of Schools Particularly in Rural Areas.

Continue…


6. Teacher’s Status and Recruitment of Female Teachers: Article 37-b

  • Better status and pay for teachers.

  • Experience has demonstrated that schools with female teachers function well particularly at Primary level.

    7. Improvement in Learning Environment:

  • Better infrastructure through School Management Councils.

    8. Technical / Vocational Education:

  • It is important to provide demand related skills.

    9. Instructional Methods:

  • Emphasis must be given on development of analytical faculties of the students.

Continue…


10. Teachers’ Training and Knowledge: Article 37-b

  • To improve teachers’ knowledge of the subject and equip them with a wide repertoire of teaching skills.

    11. English Language:

  • Introduction of English from Class – I.

  • Future policy reforms will emphasize the teaching of science subjects in English at public secondary schools.


Thank You All Article 37-b


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