Chapter 5 macromolecules
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Chapter 5. Macromolecules. Macromolecules. Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules macromolecules 4 major classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids. Polymers. Long molecules built by linking chain of repeating smaller units

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Chapter 5. Macromolecules

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Chapter 5 macromolecules

Chapter 5.Macromolecules


Macromolecules

Macromolecules

  • Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules

    • macromolecules

  • 4 major classes of macromolecules:

    • carbohydrates

    • lipids

    • proteins

    • nucleic acids


Polymers

Polymers

  • Long molecules built by linking chain of repeating smaller units

    • polymers

    • monomers = repeated small units

    • covalent bonds


How to build a polymer

How to build a polymer

  • Condensation reaction

    • dehydration synthesis

    • joins monomers by “taking” H2O out

      • 1 monomer provides OH

      • the other monomer provides H

      • together these form H2O

    • requires energy & enzymes


How to break down a polymer

How to break down a polymer

  • Hydrolysis

    • use H2O to break apart monomers

      • reverse of condensation reaction

      • H2O is split into H and OH

      • H & OH group attach where the covalent bond used to be

    • ex: digestion is hydrolysis


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates


So what s all this talk about carbs

So what’s all this talk about carbs?

Atkin’s Diet

South Beach Diet


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate

    CH2O

    (CH2O)x C6H12O6

  • Function:

    • energy u energy storage

    • raw materials u structural materials

  • Monomer: sugars

  • ex: sugars & starches


Sugars

Sugars

  • Most names for sugars end in -ose

  • Classified by number of carbons

    • 6C = hexose (glucose)

    • 5C = pentose (fructose, ribose)

    • 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)


Chapter 5 macromolecules

What functional groups?

carbonyl

aldehyde

ketone

hydroxyl


Sugar structure

Sugar structure

  • 5C & 6C sugars form rings in aqueous solutions

    • in cells!

      Carbons are numbered


Numbered carbons

Numbered carbons

C

6'

C

O

5'

C

C

4'

1'

C

C

3'

2'


Simple complex sugars

Simple & complex sugars

  • Monosaccharides

    • simple 1 monomer sugars

    • glucose

  • Disaccharides

    • 2 monomers

    • sucrose

  • Polysaccharides

    • large polymers

    • starch


Building sugars

Building sugars

  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

glucose

|

maltose

glycosidic linkage


Building sugars1

Building sugars

  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

fructose

|

sucrose

glycosidic linkage

structural isomers


Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides

  • Polymers of sugars

    • costs little energy to build

    • easily reversible = release energy

  • Function:

    • energy storage

      • starch (plants)

      • glycogen (animals)

    • building materials = structure

      • cellulose (plants)

      • chitin (arthropods & fungi)


Branched vs linear polysaccharides

Branched vs linear polysaccharides


Polysaccharide diversity

Polysaccharide diversity

  • Molecular structure determines function

  • isomers of glucose

  • How does structure influence function…


Digesting starch vs cellulose

Digesting starch vs. cellulose


Cellulose

Cellulose

  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth


Glycemic index

Glycemic index

  • Which food will get into your blood more quickly?

    • apple

    • rice cakes

    • corn flakes

    • bagel

    • peanut M&M


Glycemic index1

Glycemic index

  • Ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels

  • Carbohydrate foods that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indices. Their blood sugar response is fast & high.


Glycemic index2

Glycemic index

  • Which food will get into your blood more quickly?

    • apple36

    • rice cakes82

    • corn flakes84

    • bagel72

    • peanut M&M33


Let s build some carbohydrates

Let’s build some

Carbohydrates!


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