Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa. By Ben Morse and George Venables. Apartheid South Africa. Segregation laws instituted from early C20th; General Pass Regulations; 1905 Land Act; 1913 Colour Bar Act; 1926
By Ben Morse and George Venables
1970’s: Black Consciousness movement formed at universities led by Steve Biko.
Stephen Zunes on the role of violence in the fall
‘A violent strategy would have led inevitably to spiralling escalation, with the state having the strategic edge at every turn in the foreseeable future. Even had the blacks eventually won, it would have probably left millions dead and a ravage country…Armed resistance would probably have attracted many of the least disciplined elements from African society under apartheid, thus blurring the distinction between revolutionary actions and hooliganism. This would have resulted in a widespread debasement of morals of an entire generation of South African needed to rebuild their country, a problem which had proved to be difficult enough, even with the relatively limited revolutionary violence that did occur.’
Stephen Zunes in ‘The Role of Nonviolence
in the Downfall of Apartheid (Oxford, 1999)
‘if adequate progress is not made in the field of political and constitutional reform, South Africa’s relationships with the rest of the world are unlikely to improve…In that event South Africa will probably remain a capital-exporting and debt-repaying country for years.