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Adapting to Climate Change : Understanding the Enabling Environment in California Meg Caldwell, Center for Ocean Solutions Sara Polgar, SF BCDC Marshall, CA February 22, 2010. Overview. State Adaptation Strategy Legal Frames New Approaches Hazard Mitigation Planning

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Adapting to Climate Change : Understanding the Enabling Environment in California

Meg Caldwell, Center for Ocean Solutions

Sara Polgar, SF BCDC

Marshall, CA

February 22, 2010


Overview

Overview Environment in California

State Adaptation Strategy

Legal Frames

New Approaches

Hazard Mitigation Planning

Flood Insurance’s Perverse Incentives

And other Federal Programs


State adaptation strategy
State Adaptation Strategy Environment in California


Ocean and coastal adaptation goals
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Goals Environment in California

  • Protect health and safety and critical infrastructure

  • Protect, restore, and enhance ocean and coastal ecosystems

  • Ensure public access

  • Plan new development for long-term sustainability in the face of climate change

  • Facilitate adaptation of existing development and communities, reducing their vulnerability to climate change impacts over time


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 1: Establish State Policy to Avoid Future Hazards and Protect Critical Habitat

  • Near term:

    • Hazard avoidance policy (state agencies)

    • Innovative designs (agencies employ or encourage)

    • Habitat protection (state agencies)

    • Establish decision guidance for local agencies(Ocean Protection Council in coordination with other state agencies)

  • Long term:

    • Pilot studies (OPC in coordination withspecific cities/ state agencies)


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies1
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 2: Provide Statewide Guidance for Protecting Existing Critical Ecosystems, Existing Coastal Development, and Future Investments

  • Near term:

    • Establish decision guidance for local agencies (Ocean Protection Council in coordination with other state resource agencies)

  • Long term:

    • Pilot studies (OPC in coordination with specific cities/ state agencies)


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies2
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 3: State Agencies Should Prepare Sea-Level Rise and Climate Adaptation Plans

  • Near term:

    • Adaptation planning (state agencies)

  • Long term:

    • Adaptation plan updates (state agencies)


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies3
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 4: Support Local Planning for Addressing Sea-Level Rise Impacts

  • Near term:

    • Public outreach (OPC in coordination with other resource agencies)

    • Funding mechanisms (OPC in coordination with state agencies)

    • Local government guidance (state agencies in collaboration with local jurisdictions)

  • Long term:

    • Amend LCPs to address climate change adaptation (coastal jurisdictions in coordination with Coastal Commission)

    • Amend GPs to address climate change adaptation (local jurisdictions around San Francisco Bay in coordination with BCDC)


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies4
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 5: Complete a Statewide Sea-Level Rise Vulnerability Assessment Every Five Years

  • Long term:

    • Vulnerability assessment (OPC in coordination with all relevant agencies (consolidating existing efforts by the California Energy Commission and other agencies))


Ocean and coastal adaptation strategies5
Ocean and Coastal Adaptation Strategies Environment in California

Strategy 6: Support Essential Data Collection and Information Sharing

  • Near term:

    • High-resolution mapping (state in cooperation with federal partners)

    • Tidal data collection, ecosystem research, coastal and wetland process studies

  • Long term:

    • Decision support (OPC in coordination with state ocean resources agencies, academia, and NGOs)

Image: Example of high-res. SLR mapping being undertaken in the Caribbean.


Major regulatory paradigms
Major Regulatory Paradigms Environment in California

  • Public vs. Private Property

    • Public trust doctrine

    • 5th Amendment

  • Coastal Act

    • Local Coastal Programs

  • Other planning tools (permitting, GPs, CEQA, Climate Action Plans, hazard mitigation)

  • Interactions with federal programs


Public trust doctrine
Public Trust Doctrine Environment in California

  • Set of common-law principles

  • State and its agencies hold natural resources in trust for the public

  • Transfers out of the trust only permissible if in the public interest

  • Both bolsters and mandates ecologically sound resource management


Public trust resources
Public Trust Resources Environment in California

  • Tidelands

  • Water resources

  • Ecosystem services (e.g., water filtration, disease control)

  • Species and surrounding ecosystem

  • Aesthetics, recreational benefits, and public access


Trustee responsibilities
Trustee Responsibilities Environment in California

  • Preserve the trust corpus

    • Steward the trust resources

    • Prevent harm to the trust resources

  • Duty of loyalty to all trust beneficiairies


Application of public trust doctrine
Application of Environment in CaliforniaPublic Trust Doctrine

  • Provides authority to which regulations such as permit conditions may be anchored

  • Background principle of common law that qualifies private landowner interests

    • Private owners enjoy no right no impair public trust resources, so regulations that vindicate public trust interests are not uncompensated takings


The 5 th amendment
The 5 Environment in Californiath Amendment

No person shall be…deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation


Local level action in ca
Local-level Action in CA Environment in California

  • Two coastal counties (SLO and Sonoma) that responded to the survey currently have plans that consider climate change impacts on their communities, though coastal impacts are not included. Four other counties are currently preparing climate impact plans, including coastal impacts.

  • Among coastal cities surveyed, only one currently has a plan to deal with climate change impacts (Berkeley). Six more (Solana Beach, Goleta, San Francisco, Palo Alto, Alameda, Arcata) are in the process of developing climate impact plans.

    Moser and Tribbia (Marine TechnologySociety Journal 2006/2007)


Obstacles to local action
Obstacles to Local Action? Environment in California

  • Lack of mandate

    • 57.7% of CA coastal managers surveyed by Moser and Tribbia perceived the lack of a legal mandate requiring local managers to take climate change into account as a mayor hurdle

  • Passing the buck?

    • Local managers wait for money, technical assistance, a legal mandate and leadership from higher-level policy-makers

    • State-level managers look for bottom-up pressure from local decision-makers and federal leadership and funding


Local coastal programs overview
Local Coastal Programs: Overview Environment in California

  • Basic planning tools developed by local governments in partnership with Coastal Commission

  • 75 coastal municipalities develop LCPs and implementing measures

  • LCP adopted by local legislative body and reviewed by Commission for consistency with Coastal Act


Lcps and adaptation
LCPs and Adaptation Environment in California

  • Local agencies should begin incorporating firm restrictions and guidelines to guard against losses associated with sea level rise

    • Consider LCP amendmentfocusing on sea level rise, erosion, and flooding


Lcp case study malibu
LCP Case Study: Malibu Environment in California

The City of Malibu’s LCP consists of:

  • Land Use Plan

    http://www.ci.malibu.ca.us/download/index.cfm/fuseaction/download/cid/1577/

  • Local Implementation Plan (LIP)

    http://www.ci.malibu.ca.us/download/index.cfm/fuseaction/download/cid/1578/


Malibu s lip
Malibu’s LIP Environment in California

  • Was adopted by the CCC on September 13, 2002;

  • Its goals:

    • Assure orderly, balanced utilization and conservation of coastal zone resources;

    • Protect, maintain, and where feasible, enhance and restore the overall quality of the coastal zone environment and its natural and manmade resources.


Malibu s lip1
Malibu’s LIP Environment in California

According to the LIP any siting and design of new shoreline protective devices should take into account anticipated future changes in sea level, especially an acceleration of the historic rate of the sea level rise, potential impact on beach erosion, shoreline retreat, and bluff erosion rates.


Application submittal requirements 1
Application Submittal Requirements (1) Environment in California

All applications for new development on a beach, beachfront or bluff-top property shall include:

  • an analysis of beach erosion,

  • wave run-up,

  • inundation and flood hazards,

    prepared by a licensed civil engineer with expertise in coastal engineering.


Application submittal requirements 2
Application Submittal Requirements (2) Environment in California

All applications for bluff-top development shall include a slope stability analysis, prepared by a licensed Certified Engineering Geologist and/or Geotechnical Engineer or Registered Civil Engineer with expertise in soils.


Reports
Reports Environment in California

These reports shall address and analyze the effects of said development in relation to the following:

  • Profile of the beach;

  • Surveyed locations of mean high

    tide lines;

  • Availability of public access to the beach;

  • Need for a shoreline protection structure;

  • Future projections in sea level rise;

  • Slope stability and bluff erosion rate.


Other ideas
Other Ideas Environment in California

  • Require proponents of new shorefront development projects to examine impacts of increased sea level rise

  • Consider future increases in bluff erosion when establishing bluff edge setback criteria

  • Managed retreat for Municipal

    capital improvements


Other ideas1
Other Ideas? Environment in California

  • Reaffirm Public Trust Duties

  • Map high hazard areas in LCP

  • Amend Coastal Act LCP review requirements


Beyond lcp hazard mitigation planning
Beyond LCP: Environment in CaliforniaHazard Mitigation Planning


Beyond lcp hazard mitigation planning1
Beyond LCP: Environment in CaliforniaHazard Mitigation Planning

  • 2007 State Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan update addresses climate change

    • Includes qualitative discussion and plans for more rigorous assessments in future updates

    • Survey of local plans within the state: none had addressed climate change


Beyond lcp hazard mitigation planning2
Beyond LCP: Environment in CaliforniaHazard Mitigation Planning

  • Local governments are required to develop local-level hazard mitigation plans to access federal non-emergency assistance

  • Safety element in GP also provides opportunity to lay outclimate-associated hazard strategies


Beyond lcp hazard mitigation planning3
Beyond LCP: Environment in CaliforniaHazard Mitigation Planning

  • Local General Plans and hazard mitigation plans should touch on climate change related effects on

    • wildfires

    • drought

    • floods

    • rising sea levels


Beyond lcp hazard mitigation planning4
Beyond LCP: Environment in CaliforniaHazard Mitigation Planning

Example hazard mitigation planning strategies

  • Develop “future conditions” flooding and sea level maps and use those maps for zoning and planning when updating General Plan

  • Update building codes to enhance flood resistance in future floodplains

  • Consider climate change impacts to stormwater runoff and consider enhancing management capacity

  • Consider climate change impacts on natural hazards in establishing design levels for new and replacement infrastructure


A word about private insurance
A word about private insurance Environment in California

  • Linked to 100 year flood zone mapping

  • Currently no incentive to build so as to minimize climate change related risks


A word about private insurance1
A word about private insurance Environment in California

  • State does regulate private insurance

  • State could impose forward-looking building construction requirements in high hazard areas

  • Rate restructuring might give private insurers incentives to take future change into account and pass on costs to insured


Coordination with federal authorities
Coordination with Federal Authorities Environment in California

  • NOAA Coastal Services Center

  • FEMA: State hazard mitigation planning efforts to meet federal requirements beginning to account for climate change

  • Flood zone mapping: Army Corpscurrently coming up with new CA maps for 100 year flood zone


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