U.S. Federal Deficit and the Unemployment Rate. U.S. Federal Deficit and the Real Interest Rate, 1980-1991. U.S. Federal Deficit and the Real Interest Rate, 1992-2000. Unemployment (right scale). Real GNP (left scale). The Great Depression. The Spending Hypothesis: Shocks to the IS Curve.
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U.S. Federal Deficit and the Unemployment Rate
U.S. Federal Deficit and the Real Interest Rate, 1980-1991
U.S. Federal Deficit and the Real Interest Rate, 1992-2000
Unemployment (right scale)
Real GNP(left scale)
Industrial Production and Bank Failures
But, two problems with this hypothesis:
P fell 25% during 1929-33.
The stabilizing effects of deflation:
P (M/P )
IS shifts right
The destabilizing effects of unexpected deflation:debt-deflation theory
P (if unexpected)
transfers purchasing power from borrowers to lenders
borrowers spend less, lenders spend more
if borrowers’ propensity to spend is larger than lenders, then aggregate spending falls, the IScurve shifts left, and Yfalls
The destabilizing effects of expected deflation:
r for each value of i
I because I = I (r)
planned expenditure & agg. demand
income & output