The Past Perfect
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The Past Perfect & The Past Perfect Progressive. By Maram Alabdulaaly. Outline. FIRST. How is each tense formed?. SECOND. When is each tense used?. Third. Comparisons. Past Perfect Tense. Affirmative Sentences. Negative Sentences. Past Perfect Progressive. Affirmative Sentences.

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By maram alabdulaaly

The Past Perfect

&

The Past Perfect Progressive

By MaramAlabdulaaly

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Outline

FIRST

How is each tense formed?

SECOND

When is each tense used?

Third

Comparisons..

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Past Perfect Tense

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Affirmative Sentences

Negative Sentences

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Past Perfect Progressive

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Affirmative Sentences

Negative Sentences

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

When to use the past perfect?

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p50

When is it used? P50

  • To express an activity that was complete before another activity or time in the past.

  • By the time Sam got there, Ann had already left.

  • Use: By the time.

  • Not use: before & after.

  • The action in the past perfect happened first.

Past

Future

Now

X

X

Ann had already left

Sam got there.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p501

When is it used? P50

  • Common reporting verbs include: said, tell(someone), say, find out, learn, and discover.

2. Used in reported speech.

  • Fay said she had finished her homework.

I finished my homework

What did she say?

She said that she had finished her homework.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p502

When is it used? P50

For, you see, so many out-of-the-way things had happened lately, that Alice had begun to think that very few things indeed were really impossible.

3. Past perfect is often found in more formal writing such as fiction. The writer uses the simple past to say that an event happened, and then uses the past perfect to explain what had happened before that event.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p503

When is it used? P50

2. Used in reported speech.

  • Fay said she had finished her homework.

  • To express an activity that was complete before another activity or time in the past.

  • By the time Sam got there, Ann had already left.

3. Past perfect is often found in more formal writing such as fiction. The writer uses the simple past to say that an event happened, and then uses the past perfect to explain what had happened before that event.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

When to use the Past perfect progressive?

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p55

When is it used? P55

It emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.

  • Eric finally came at 6 O’clock. I had been waiting for him since four-thirty.

Past

Future

Now

X

X

How long had you been waiting?

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p551

When is it used? P55

May express an activity in progress close in time to another activity or time in the past.

  • When Judy got home, her hair was still wet because she had been swimming.

Past

Future

Now

X

X

She had been swimming

Judy got home.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


When is it used p552

When is it used? P55

I have been waiting for you.

What did she say?

She said that she had been waiting for you.

3. In reported speech

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Simple Past

Lets compare it with the other tenses….

Simple Future

Past Progressive

Present Progressive

Future Progressive

Simple Present

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Past Perfect

Past Progressive

To express an activity that was complete before another activity or time in the past.

By the time it started to rain, Rita had already reached her house.

Two actions occurred at the same time, but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.

Rita was standing under a tree when it began to rain.

Past

X

X

Future

X

X

Now

Past

Now

Future

Rita was standing under a tree.

X

It began to rain.

Rita had reached home.

It started to rain.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


By maram alabdulaaly

Past Perfect Progressive

Past progressive

Emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity in the past.

Rita had been standing under a tree for five minutes when it began to rain.

Two actions occurred at the same time, but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.

Rita was standing under a tree when it began to rain.

5 minutes

Past

X

X

X

X

Past

Now

Now

Future

Future

X

X

Rita was standing under a tree.

Rita had been standing under a tree.

It began to rain.

It began to rain.

By Maram Alabdulaaly


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