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406.08 Loads and Load Factors. 1 X 40 min OCdt Marl-e-a-u. Outline. Definitions Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank Load Factor in Turns Centripetal and Centrifugal Force Forces on Aircraft. What is weight?.

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406 08 loads and load factors

406.08Loads and Load Factors

1 X 40 min

OCdt Marl-e-a-u


Outline
Outline

  • Definitions

  • Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank

  • Load Factor in Turns

  • Centripetal and Centrifugal Force

  • Forces on Aircraft


What is weight
What is weight?

  • The downward FORCE due to gravity (or other acceleration), that is usually directly opposed to lift

  • Acts through the centre of gravity


What happens if
What happens if…

  • Weight is greater than lift?

    • Aircraft descends

  • Lift is greater than weight?

    • Aircraft climbs


  • Wing loading
    Wing Loading

    • Gross weight of the aircraft divided by the area of lifting surfaces (wings)

    = Wing Loading


    Dynamic live loading
    Dynamic/Live Loading

    • Additional load due to acceleration or change in direction associated with manoeuvres in flight


    Load factor
    Load Factor

    • Ratio of the actual load acting on the wings to the gross weight of the airplane

    • Live Load : Dead Load

    • In straight and level flight the load factor is 1


    Gust loads
    Gust Loads

    • Load changes imposed on an aircraft due to intense up and down wind gusts


    Weight load factor and stalling speeds
    Weight, Load Factor and Stalling Speeds

    • Increased aircraft WEIGHT requires increased lift to maintain level flight

    • Critical angle of attack is reached at a higher speed

    • Stall speed increases

    Speed to reach

    critical angle of

    attack

    Weight

    Stall speed


    Weight load factor and stalling speeds1
    Weight, Load Factor and Stalling Speeds

    • Increased load factor during manoeuvres in flight requires increased lift to maintain level flight

    • Critical angle of attack is reached at an increased speed

    • Stall speed increases

    Speed to reach

    critical angle of

    attack

    Load factor

    during flight

    Stall

    speed


    Angle of bank and wing loading
    Angle of Bank and Wing Loading

    • As angle of bank is increased in a turn the load factor and amount of lift required also increases

    • Load factor increases exponentially with angle of bank


    Is it easier to stall an aircraft when in a turn or when in straight and level flight
    Is it easier to stall an aircraft when in a turn or when in straight and level flight?

    In a turn!

    Speed to reach

    critical angle of

    attack

    Load factor

    In a turn

    Stall

    speed


    Structural limitations
    Structural Limitations

    • Each aircraft is designed with a max load factor that should not be exceeded as permanent damage may occur

    • Schweizer 2-33a Max Load Factor = 4.67 G


    Forces in a turn
    Forces in a Turn

    • In a turn…

      • Vertical forces of lift and weight are no longer in balance

      • Angle of attack must be increased to produce the increased lift needed

      • Lift is divided into two components = vertical and horizontal


    Vertical and horizontal components of lift
    Vertical and Horizontal Components of Lift

    • Vertical component = opposes weight

    • Horizontal component = causes airplane to turn

      • This horizontal component is known as centripetal force

      • Centrifugal force is opposite to centripetal force and pulls the aircraft out of the turn


    Forces in a turn1
    Forces in a Turn

    Pulls plane into the

    centre of the

    turn and

    counteracts

    centrifugal force

    Resulting lift

    due to added

    horizontal

    components

    Pulls plane to

    outside of

    the turn




    What we have learned
    What we have learned…

    • Definitions

    • Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank

    • Load Factor in Turns

    • Centripetal and Centrifugal Force

    • Forces on Aircraft


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