406 08 loads and load factors
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406.08 Loads and Load Factors. 1 X 40 min OCdt Marl-e-a-u. Outline. Definitions Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank Load Factor in Turns Centripetal and Centrifugal Force Forces on Aircraft. What is weight?.

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406 08 loads and load factors

406.08Loads and Load Factors

1 X 40 min

OCdt Marl-e-a-u

outline
Outline
  • Definitions
  • Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank
  • Load Factor in Turns
  • Centripetal and Centrifugal Force
  • Forces on Aircraft
what is weight
What is weight?
  • The downward FORCE due to gravity (or other acceleration), that is usually directly opposed to lift
  • Acts through the centre of gravity
what happens if
What happens if…
  • Weight is greater than lift?
      • Aircraft descends
  • Lift is greater than weight?
      • Aircraft climbs
wing loading
Wing Loading
  • Gross weight of the aircraft divided by the area of lifting surfaces (wings)

= Wing Loading

dynamic live loading
Dynamic/Live Loading
  • Additional load due to acceleration or change in direction associated with manoeuvres in flight
load factor
Load Factor
  • Ratio of the actual load acting on the wings to the gross weight of the airplane
  • Live Load : Dead Load
  • In straight and level flight the load factor is 1
gust loads
Gust Loads
  • Load changes imposed on an aircraft due to intense up and down wind gusts
weight load factor and stalling speeds
Weight, Load Factor and Stalling Speeds
  • Increased aircraft WEIGHT requires increased lift to maintain level flight
  • Critical angle of attack is reached at a higher speed
  • Stall speed increases

Speed to reach

critical angle of

attack

Weight

Stall speed

weight load factor and stalling speeds1
Weight, Load Factor and Stalling Speeds
  • Increased load factor during manoeuvres in flight requires increased lift to maintain level flight
  • Critical angle of attack is reached at an increased speed
  • Stall speed increases

Speed to reach

critical angle of

attack

Load factor

during flight

Stall

speed

angle of bank and wing loading
Angle of Bank and Wing Loading
  • As angle of bank is increased in a turn the load factor and amount of lift required also increases
  • Load factor increases exponentially with angle of bank
is it easier to stall an aircraft when in a turn or when in straight and level flight
Is it easier to stall an aircraft when in a turn or when in straight and level flight?

In a turn!

Speed to reach

critical angle of

attack

Load factor

In a turn

Stall

speed

structural limitations
Structural Limitations
  • Each aircraft is designed with a max load factor that should not be exceeded as permanent damage may occur
  • Schweizer 2-33a Max Load Factor = 4.67 G
forces in a turn
Forces in a Turn
  • In a turn…
      • Vertical forces of lift and weight are no longer in balance
      • Angle of attack must be increased to produce the increased lift needed
      • Lift is divided into two components = vertical and horizontal
vertical and horizontal components of lift
Vertical and Horizontal Components of Lift
  • Vertical component = opposes weight
  • Horizontal component = causes airplane to turn
    • This horizontal component is known as centripetal force
    • Centrifugal force is opposite to centripetal force and pulls the aircraft out of the turn
forces in a turn1
Forces in a Turn

Pulls plane into the

centre of the

turn and

counteracts

centrifugal force

Resulting lift

due to added

horizontal

components

Pulls plane to

outside of

the turn

what we have learned
What we have learned…
  • Definitions
  • Relationship Between Wing Loading and Angle of Bank
  • Load Factor in Turns
  • Centripetal and Centrifugal Force
  • Forces on Aircraft
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