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Module 1. IT. Concepts of information technology. Part 1. Types of Computers. Mainframe Computers PC ( Personal Computer ) Networked Computer Laptop PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant ). Mainframe computer. Description

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Module 1

Module 1


Concepts of information technology

Part 1

Part 1

Types of computers

Types of Computers

  • Mainframe Computers

  • PC ( Personal Computer )

  • Networked Computer

  • Laptop

  • PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )

Mainframe computer

Mainframe computer

  • Description

    Are big , powerful , expensive computers used by most large organization

  • Capacity :

    very power full computers

  • Speed

    Very Fast in processing data

  • Costs :

    very expensive

  • Users

    Large companies including banks...

Pc personal computer

( PC) Personal computer

  • Description

    IBM invented the pc since 1981

  • Capacity :

    large hard disk

  • Speed

    Fast normally measured in GHz

  • Costs :

    Getting cheaper by day

  • Users

    Home users , Doctors , Education …..

Networked computer

Networked Computer

  • Description

    Allow you to connect two or more than one computer together

  • Capacity :

    large hard disk

  • Speed

    Fast normally measured in GHz

  • Costs :

    A pc need inexpensive card to connect to network

  • Users

    Home users , Doctors , Education , any one…..



  • Description

    Small , Portable , Can run on batteries as well as main power

  • Capacity :

    Large hard disk, often less powerful than PC which is equivalent in price

  • Speed

    Fast normally measured in GHz – Speed specification are less than PC which is equivalent in price

  • Costs :

    Exceeds when compared with PC

  • Users

    Business users , People on the move , Educational user

Pda personal digital assistant

PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )

  • Description

    Use a special pen rather than keyboard, can store and retrieve information

  • Capacity :

    Much smaller than PC

  • Speed

    Much slower than PC

  • Costs :

    Exceeds when compared to PC

  • Users :

    Mostly Business Users



Computer components

Computer Components

System unit

System Unit

  • The name given to Main PC box

  • It Houses items like ….

  • Mother Board

  • CPU

  • RAM

  • CD

  • Floppy Disk

System mother board

System (Mother ) Board

  • All items of the system unit attached to Mother board , either directly or via cable

Cpu central processing unit

CPU (Central Processing Unit )

  • IT is one of the most important components within Computer

  • It is the brain within your Computer

  • It performs most of the calculation within the computer

  • It determines How fast you Computer will run

  • It is measured by GHz

  • 2 GHz Pentium is much faster than 1GHz Pentium



Ram random access memory

RAM ( Random Access Memory )

  • It’s where the operating system is loaded when you switch on your computer

  • It’s where your application are copied to when you start application (such as word processing )

  • Volatile and changeable

  • The more RAM you Have installed in you Computer is better

  • It is measured by MB

  • These days you will commonly find over 512 MB of Ram installed

Rom bios read only memory basic input out put system

ROM - BIOS ( Read only Memory – Basic input out put system )

  • It is special chip held on your computers’ mother board

  • It contains Software which makes your computer work with your operating system

  • It is Non volatile, unchangeable

Serial port

Serial Port

  • It is socket located at the back of your computer which enable you to connect items to the computer , such as Modem

Parallel port

Parallel Port

  • It is socket located at the back of your computer which enable you to connect items to the computer , such as Modem

Usb universal serial bus

USB (Universal Serial Bus )

  • It is Relatively new item within the PC

  • You will see one or more USB Sockets at the back of Your computer

  • It enables you to Plug in devices such as Printer, Scanner, Digital camera .

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Input And Output Device

Input device

Input Device ….

Input device allow you to input Data to the computer

  • Key board

  • Mouse

  • Tracks ball

  • Touch pad

  • Light pen

  • Joy stick

  • Scanner

  • Web Cam

  • Digital Camera

Key board

Key Board

  • Key board is the commonest way of entering data to the computer



  • The mouse came into common use on PC with the introduction of Microsoft operating system (Windows) .

  • Before this (DOS) operating system had been controlled via the keyboard

Tracker ball

Tracker ball

  • A tracker ball is an alternative to the mouse.

  • A tracker ball is favorite by graphic designers.

Touch pad

Touch pad

  • Touch pad can be used by graphic artists

Light pen

Light pen

  • A light pen is used to allow users to point to areas on screen and its often used to select menu

Joy stick

Joy stick

  • Used in games



  • A scanner allows you to scan printed material and convert it into a file format which may be used within PC

Web cam

Web Cam

  • Ever since it was invented , the web has become increasingly interactive .

  • It allows you to communicate in two ways not just text communication but also sound and video

Digital camera

Digital Camera

  • A digital camera can be used in the same way of traditional camera but instead of storing images on rolls of films , the images are storing in memory housed within the camera ,this images can easily be transferred to your computer

Output device

Output Device ….

Output devices allow you to output information From the computer

  • Computer monitor

  • Flat screen monitor

  • Computer presentation projection device

  • Printers

  • speakers

Computer monitor

Computer monitor

  • The VDU ( Visual Display Unit ) is the computer screen used to outputinformation.

Flat screen monitor

Flat screen monitor

  • Flat screen computer monitor have become available , these take less size on the desk and use less energy than the traditional

Computer presentation projection device

Computer presentation projection device

  • It can be attached to your computer and it is useful to display presentations to group of people.



  • Laser Printer

  • Color laser printer

  • Inkjet printers

  • Dot matrix printers

  • Plotter



Output input device

Output / Input Device ….

Some devices are both input / output devices

  • Touch screen

Storage device

Storage Device

  • Hard desk ( Internal – External )

  • Zip Driver

  • Diskette

  • CD desk

  • DVD driver

  • Jaz Disks

  • Back up tape

Hard disk

Hard disk

  • Internal Hard Disks

  • Speed:

    • Very fast!

    • The speed of a hard disk is often measured by “RPM" speed, The smaller this number the slower the hard disk.


    • Enormous! Often in excess of 10 Gigabytes. A Gigabyte is equivalent to 1024 Megabytes.

  • Cost:

    Getting cheaper by the day

Hard disks

Hard Disks

External Hard Disks

  • Speed:

    • Normally slower than internal disks, but more expensive, offer the same performance as internal hard disks.

  • Capacity:

    • Same as internal disks.

  • Cost:

    • More expensive than internal disks.

Dvd drives

DVD Drives

  • Speed:

    • Much faster than CD-ROM drives but not as fast as hard disks.

  • Capacity:

    • Up to 30 G bytes.

  • Cost:

    • Slightly higher than CD-ROM drives.

Cd rom compact disc

CD-ROM (Compact Disc)

  • Speed:

    • Much slower than hard disks.

  • Capacity:

    • Around 650 Mbytes.

Zip disks

Zip Disks

  • Speed:

    • Slower than hard disks but ideal for backup.

  • Capacity:

    • 100 or 250 Megabytes.

Jaz disks

Jaz Disks


  • Slower than hard disks but ideal for backup.

  • Capacity:

    • Around 2 Gigabytes (2048 Megabytes).

  • Diskettes floppy disks

    Diskettes (Floppy Disks)

    It can be write protected to prevent data from changes or infection of viruses.

    • Speed:

      • Very slow!

    • Capacity:

      • Normally 1.44 Mbytes.

    • Cost:

      • Very cheap.

    Back up tape

    Back up Tape

    • Used to archiving the files that are not needed

    Storage measurement

    Storage measurement

    • Tera byte = 1024 Giga byte

    • Giga byte = 1024 Mega byte

    • Mega byte = 1024 Kilo byte

    • Kilo byte =1024 Byte

    • Byte = 8 Bit



    Types of Software

    • Operating System

    • Application Program



    • Unformatted disk need operating system data written to them before they can store files.

    • Pre formatted disk can be used immediately to store data.

    • Full formatting completely erase the previous contents of a disk.

    • You can purchase preformatted disk.

    • You can reformat a used floppy disk.

    Operating system

    Operating System

    • The operating system is a special type of programs which is loaded automatically when you start your computer

    • There are number of different types of operating system

    • DOS

    • Windows

    • Unix and Linux

    • Mac/OS

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    • IBM invented Pc Since 1981 And used DOS Operating system.

    • This operating system was very basic.

    • You had to be computer expert just to understand how to use computer

    • It was not user – friendly



    • Microsoft introduced windows which is more powerful than DOS and which is commonly used on PC today.

    • There are numbers of different types of windows

    • The main advantage of windows that it has a Graphical User Interface ( GUI )

    Graphical user interface gui

    Graphical User Interface ( GUI )

    • It is part of operating system which display windows and drop down menus

    • The system using windows, icons to operate a computer

    • It enables you to drive your computer by using mouse

    • Advantage

    • All programs look similar and when switches from a program supplied by one manufacturer to different program supplied by another manufacturer , you will find the transition very easy

    • By GUI its easier to learn and use Application Program

    Unix linux

    Unix & Linux

    • Are other examples of Operating Systems which may be run on PCs

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    • Other Types of computers , Such as Manufactured by Apple have a completely different operating System called Mac/OS .

    Application software

    Application Software

    • An application program is the type of program which you use when the operating system has been loaded.

    • Can run more than one at the same time.

    • Can be used to edit data type

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    Example ….

    • Word Processor

      Create letters, Faxes, Memos

    • Spread Sheet ( Excel )

    • Make financial projects

    • With Charts

    • Database ( Access )

    • Sort large amount of information

    • Presentation ( Power point )

      Crate overhead projection or slides

    • Desktop publish

    • Producing a newspaper with

    • complex page layout

    • Accounts payroll ( Sage )

    • (Make financial projects )

    • large Organizations

    Things to avoid

    Things to avoid

    • Dust

    • Drinking and eating over the key board

    • Heat

    • Moisture

    • Don’t move the system while it switched on

    • Follow the correct steps to shutdown your computer

    • Don’t place object in the top of monitor

    • Don’t place floppy disk near monitor . Monitor produce a strong electromagnetic

    System cycle

    System Cycle

    • Most project work in cycle

    • First step ( System analysis):

      Analyze the need of computer user.

    • Second Step ( Design )

      Draw up the plans on how it can be implemented on a real.

    • Third Step ( Programming )

      Convert the design to actual plan.

    • Final Step ( Testing )

      Testing the software.

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