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Unifying the Geometry of General Relativity with the Virtual Particle Nature of Quantum Electrodynamics

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Unifying

the

Geometry of General Relativity with the

Virtual Particle Nature

of

Quantum Electrodynamics

John R. Laubenstein

IWPD Research Center

Naperville, Illinois

Tel: 630-428-9842

Email: jrlaubenstein@iwpd.org

www.iwpd.org

American Physical Society

2007 March Meeting

Denver, Colorado

We pose the question:

What if the universe is not best described by points – but, rather as two-dimensional rings that have been expanding since the origin of space and time?

This results in no conceptual change to Spacetime, but rather simply a change in the way we describe Spacetime.

- The basic concept of String Theory is
- projected beyond the Planck Scale to the
- Macro-World
- One spatial dimension is expressed
- through two-dimensional rings (or rods)
- and not as points
- Time is measured through the expansion
- of these rings (or rods).

This ring has been dubbed as the “Energime”

The properties of the energime are manifested in one of three fundamental quantum values:

The Equivalence of Time and a Spatial Dimension through 2D “Rods” or “Rings”

(a) (b) (c)

(a) Light cone with dashed lines showing passage of time

(b) Cylinder defined by two-dimensions of space and “time-lines”

(c) Geometric conversion of the surface area of a cylinder to a sphere depicting a 2-dimensional space defined by points (blue) and a third dimension manifested as rings and representing both the evolution of a spatial dimension and the passage of time

Two-Dimensional Surface with Rods Defining both a Spatial Dimension and Time

Each Rod Defines a Space on the 2D Space Grid

Rotating the 2D Surface

Two-Dimensional Space Grid (2DSG) with rods extended outward from the planar surface defining both the 3rd spatial dimension along with the passage of time

Energime Field Associated with Massive Object

Distortion of Flat Space due to Massive Object

Changing

energime field

Massive

Object

Distortion of Flat Space due to Massive Object

- Gravitational Force
- Determined by a change in scale (gauge) between the Background Energime Field (BEF) and a Local Energime Field (LEF).

- This change in scale can be equivalently viewed as:
- The “warping” of space and spacetime
- The transfer (emission and absorption)
- of a quantum particle (energime)

The “warping” of space and spacetime

LEF

BEF Velocity

Quantitatively: From Infinity

BEF = Unity (by definition)

LEF

BEF Velocity

Quantitatively: Between any

Two Points

Quantitatively: The Velocity of an Object in a Gravitational Free Fall

The Velocity Equation is based on the Geometry of Space and Spacetime

LEF

BEF Velocity

The transfer (emission and absorption)

of a quantum particle (energime)

Space and Spacetime

remain

flat

LEF

BEF

Energy and Momentum

Quantitative: The Addition of Energy (Mass) from a Gravitating Object

BEF Energy = Unity

LEF

BEF

Energy (mass) and Momentum

Quantitative: The LEF Momentum Due to a Gravitating Object

BEF Momentum = 0

LEF

BEF

Energy (mass) and Momentum

The Emission and Absorption of a Force-Transmitting Particle

The energy gain and momentum of a

free falling mass is determined exactly

by the LEF Energy and LEF

Momentum absorbed from the field

resulting in the velocity of an object

in flat space and spacetime

LEF

BEF

Energy (mass) and Momentum

Geometry

Particle

LEF

BEFVelocity

Velocity due to

the absorption of Energy and Momentum from the Field

LEF

BEF

- Gravity and Electrostatic Force
- Gravity is due to the propagation of a real
- particle (energime) and is always attractive
- Electrostatic Force is propagated through a
- “virtual” particle that emits and absorbs
- energy and momentum creating both an
- attractive and repulsive force

- Electrostatic Force
- The only other allowable force mitigating particle with an infinite reach has a mass of

K represents a proportionality constant for the given force field and is equal to:

Gravitational Force

Electrostatic Force

- Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)
- Force is propagated through the exchange of
- virtual photons
- The path of these photons can be any one of
- an infinite number of paths

- Cosmological Accomplishments of
- Energime Theory
- 14.2 Billion Years:predicted age of the universe
- Dark Energy: provides a physical explanation
- through the emission of free
- energimes that expand vacuum
- Accelerated Rate of Expansion: free energime
- emission predicts an acceleration
- rate in agreement with observation

Final Thought

Is it possible that the universe is not best described by points – but, rather with ever expanding energime rings that change the way we describe Spacetime?

John R. Laubenstein

IWPD Research Center

Naperville, Illinois

Tel: 630-428-9842

Email: jrlaubenstein@iwpd.org

www.iwpd.org

American Physical Society

2007 March Meeting

Denver, Colorado