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### Thermodynamics

1.2.2 Heat of Formation

2.2 Heat of Formation

- Standard Heat of Formation ΔHof
- the amount of energygained or lost when1 mole of the substance isformed from its elementsunder standard conditions(25°C, 1 atm = 101.3 kPa)

Standard Heat of Formation

- Ex. the formation reaction for liquid water is described by the following equation:
- H2 (g) + ½O2 (g) → H2O(l) + 285.8 kJ
- The standard heat of formation is: 285.8 kJ. Since the reaction is exothermic: ΔHof -285.8 kJ.

A heat of formation is a type of reaction where one mole of the compound forms from its elements

- The heat of formation for pure elements, such as H2(g), O2(g), Al(s), etc. is 0 kJ/mole. You\'ll find it useful to remember this.

Look over the Heat of formation table

- See values in outline

Writing Heat of Formation Reactions

- Keep the following points in mind:
- Balance the equation so that one mole of the compound is produced.
- Remember the diatomic (7) molecules and write them correctly (H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2).
- The reactants must be elements, not polyatomic ions. Examples of polyatomic ions are hydroxide, OH-, carbonate, CO32-, and ammonium, NH4+.

Review

- H2(g) + ½O2(g) → H2O(l) + 285 kJ.
- If 285.8 kJ of energy are released during the formation of one mole of H2O(l), how much energy do you imagine would be released if two moles of water were produced?

If you predicted 571.6 kJ of energy you\'re right! Our formation reaction tells us that 285.8 kJ of energy are released for every one mole of H2O. This can be written mathematically as:

285.8 kJ/mol H2O×2 mol H2O =571.6 kJ

- Our new equation looks like this:
- 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 571.6 kJ

Practice problems

- 1. Write heats of formation reactions for each of the following compounds. Be sure to include the energy term with the equation, either as part of the equation or separately as Δ H. You will need to refer to a Table of Thermochemical Data.
- CO2 (g),
- CuCl2 (g),
- CuCl (g),
- N2H4 (l),
- NH4Cl (s).

Answers - either format would be acceptable as an answer

- C (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 393.5 kJ or C (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) Δ H = -393.5 kJ
- Cu (s) + Cl2 (g) → CuCl2 (s) + 220.1 kJ or Cu (s) + Cl2 (g) → CuCl2 (s) Δ H = -220.1 kJ
- Cu (s) + ½ Cl2 (g) → CuCl2 (s) + 137.2kJ or Cu (s) + ½ Cl2 (g) → CuCl2 (s) Δ H = -137.2 kJ
- N2 (g) + 2H2 (g) + 50.6 kJ → N2H4 (l) or N2 (g) + 2H2 (g) → N2H4 (l) Δ H = +50.6 kJ
- ½N2 (g) + 2H2 (g) + ½Cl2 (g) → NH4Cl (s)+ 314.4 kJ or ½N2 (g) + 2H2 (g) + ½Cl2 (g) → NH4Cl (s) Δ H = -314.4 kJ

Example

The standard heat of formation, ΔHof, for sulfur dioxide (SO2) is -297 kJ/mol. How many kJ of energy are given off when 25.0 g of SO2 (g) is produced from its elements?

answer

- Step 1: Calculate moles SO2

a. Find the molar mass of SO2 = 32.1 + 2(16.0) = 64.1 g/mol

b. moles SO2 =

Step 2: Determine kJ for 0.390 mol

We know from the question that 297 kJ of energy is released for 1 mole of SO2 Determine how much energy will be released for 0.390 mol of SO2:

Example

The heat of reaction for the combustion of 1 mol of ethyl alcohol is -9.50 × 102 kJ:

C2H5OH (l) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (l) + 9.5 × 102 kJ

How much heat is produced when 11.5 g of alcohol is burned?

Answer

- First determine how many moles of ethyl alcohol are being combusted. You need to begin by finding the molar mass of C2H5OH, which is 46.0 g/mol.
- moles C2H5OH =
- From our balanced equation we see that 9.50 × 102 kJ of energy are released for every 1 mole of C2H5OH . Now we determine how much energy will be released for 0.250 mol:

Example

ΔH for the complete combustion of 1 mol of propane is -2.22 × 103 kJ:

C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g) → 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (l)

Calculate the heat of reaction for the combustion of 33.0 g of propane.

Answer

- 4. determine moles of propane actually used. The molar mass of C3H8 is:

moles C3H8 =

From our balanced equation we see that 2.22 × 103 kJ of energy are released for every 1 mole of C3H8. Now determine how much energy will be released for 0.750 mol:

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