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Lecture 11 - Six-Sigma Management and Tools. 6 Σ Organization, DMAIC, Taguchi Method, Robust Design, Design of Experiments, Design for Six Sigma, Reasons for 6 Σ Failure. Topics. Six Sigma Evolution. Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola in 1986 ( Bill Smith )

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lecture 11 six sigma management and tools

Lecture 11 - Six-Sigma Management and Tools

6Σ Organization, DMAIC, Taguchi Method, Robust Design, Design of Experiments, Design for Six Sigma, Reasons for 6Σ Failure

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

topics
Topics

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

six sigma evolution
Six Sigma Evolution
  • Started as a simple quality metric at Motorola in 1986 (Bill Smith)
  • Concept migrated to Allied Signal
    • (acquired Honeywell and took its name)
  • Picked up by General Electric
    • Commitment by CEO Jack Welch in 1995
    • Grown to be an integrated strategy for attaining extremely high levels of quality

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

what is six sigma
What is Six-Sigma?

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

percent not meeting specifications
Percent Not Meeting Specifications
  • +1Σ = 32%
  • +2Σ = 4.5%
  • +3Σ = 0.3%
  • +6Σ = 0.00034%

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

six sigma levels
Six-Sigma Levels

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpu
Statistics - DPU
  • Defect
    • Six Sigma: “any mistake or error passed on to the customer” ???
    • General view: any variation from specifications
  • DPU (defects per unit)
    • Number of defects per unit of work
    • Ex: 3 lost bags ÷ 8,000 customers

= .000375

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpmo defects per million opportunities
Statistics – dpmo (defects per million opportunities)
  • Process may have more than one opportunity for error (e.g., airline baggage)
  • dpmo = (DPU× 1,000,000) ÷

opportunities for error

  • Ex: (.000375)(1,000,000) ÷ 1.6 = 234.375

or (3 lost bags × 1,000,000) ÷ (8,000 customers × 1.6 average bags)

= 234.375

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

statistics dpmo cont d
Statistics – dpmo (cont’d)
  • May extend the concept to include higher level processes
    • E.g., may consider all opportunities for errors for a flight (from ticketing to baggage claim)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

statistics off centering
Statistics - Off-Centering
  • Represents a shift in the process mean
  • Impossible to always keep the process mean the same (this WOULD be perfection)
  • Does NOT represent a change in specifications
  • Control of shift within ± 1.5 σ of the target mean keeps defects to a maximum of 3.4 per million

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

slide11
Statistics - Off-Centering (cont’d)Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

k sigma quality levels
k-Sigma Quality Levels
  • Number of defects per million opportunities
    • For a specified off-centering and
    • a desired quality level

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

k sigma quality levels source evans lindsay the management and control of quality southwestern 2005
k-Sigma Quality Levels Source: Evans & Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality, Southwestern, 2005

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

six sigma and other techniques
Six Sigma and Other Techniques

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

organizing six sigma

Organizing Six Sigma

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

key players
Key Players

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

distribution of six sigma trained employees
Distribution of Six Sigma Trained Employees

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

six sigma tools

Six Sigma Tools

DMAIC, Taguchi Method, Design for Six Sigma

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dmaic

DMAIC

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dmaic dmaic overview
DMAICDMAIC Overview

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d maic define 1
DMAICDefine – (1)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d maic define 2
DMAICDefine – (2)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d maic define 3
DMAICDefine – (3)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic measure 1
DMAICMeasure – (1)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic measure 2
DMAICMeasure – (2)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic measure 3
DMAICMeasure – (3)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic measure 4
DMAICMeasure – (4)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic repeatability reproducibility

DMAICRepeatability & Reproducibility

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

measurement system d m aic evaluation
Measurement System DMAIC Evaluation
  • Variation can be due to:
    • Process variation
    • Measurement system error
      • Random
      • Systematic (bias)
    • A combination of the two

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic metrology 1
DMAICMetrology - 1
  • Definition: The Science of Measurement
  • Accuracy
    • How close an observation is to a standard
  • Precision
    • How close random individual measurements are to each other

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic metrology 2
DMAICMetrology - 2
  • Repeatability
    • Instrument variation
    • Variation in measurements using same instrument and same individual
  • Reproducibility
    • Operator variation
    • Variation in measurements using sameinstrument and different individual

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic r r studies
DMAICR&R Studies
  • Select m operators and n parts
  • Calibrate the measuring instrument
  • Randomly measure each part by each operator for r trials
  • Compute key statistics to quantify repeatability and reproducibility

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic r r spreadsheet template
DMAICR&R Spreadsheet Template

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic r r evaluation
DMAICR&R Evaluation
  • Repeatability and/or reproducibility error as a percent of the tolerance
    • Acceptable: < 10%
    • Unacceptable: > 30%
    • Questionable: 10-30%
      • Decision based on criticality of the quality characteristic being measured and cost factors

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

d m aic calibration
DMAICCalibration
  • Compare 2 instruments or systems
    • 1 with known relationship to national standards
    • 1 with unknown relationship to national standards

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dm a ic analyze 1
DMAICAnalyze – (1)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dm a ic analyze 2
DMAICAnalyze – (2)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dm a ic analyze 3
DMAICAnalyze–(3)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dm a ic analyze 4
DMAICAnalyze–(4)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dma i c improve
DMAICImprove

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dmai c control phase
DMAICControl Phase

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

the taguchi method

The Taguchi Method

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

the taguchi method provides
The Taguchi Method provides:

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

design of experiments doe
Design of Experiments (DOE)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

the taguchi process
The Taguchi Process

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

taguchi quality loss function
Taguchi Quality Loss Function
  • Traditional view: anything within specification limits is OK, with no loss
  • Taguchi
    • Any variation from the target mean represents a potential loss
    • The greater the distance from the target mean the greater the potential loss

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

design for six sigma

Design for Six Sigma

DFSS

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

design for six sigma dfss
Design for Six-Sigma (DFSS)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

dmadv
DMADV

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

slide50
IDOV

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

reasons for six sigma failure

Reasons for Six Sigma Failure

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

reasons for six sigma failure 1
Reasons for Six-Sigma Failure - (1)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

reasons for six sigma failure 2
Reasons for Six-Sigma Failure - (2)

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

summary
Summary

SJSU Bus. 142 - David Bentley

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