Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 104

Chapter 14 -- Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 48 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 14 -- Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology. Xiaodong He Radiotherapy Center Shanghai Pulmonary Hospit al.

Download Presentation

Chapter 14 -- Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Chapter 14 -- Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology

Xiaodong He

Radiotherapy Center

Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital


Prologue

Just after the moment of discovery of X rays, the importance of X rays in medical diagnosis was immediately apparent , and within months of its discovery, the bactericidal action of X rays and their ability to destroy tumors were revealed.

prologue


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Today, both diagnostic and therapeutic medicine as well as medical research depend critically on many increasingly sophisticated applications of nuclear radiation and radioisotopes.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology

Radiation Oncology

Nuclear

medicine

Radiation

Image

+

NMR

Medical Applications of Nuclear Technology are constituted by three parts above.


Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine

in vitro

RadioimmunoassayRIA

Camera Bone Scanning

Single Photon Emission Computerized

Tomography SPECT

Positron Emission Tomography

PET/CT

Radionuclide Therapy

Tumor, hyperthyroidism,etc.

Radionuclide analysis

in vitro + in vivo


Radionuclide analysis for human species

According to the radioactive isotope analysis results of the Oak Ridge() lab:

In one year, 98% of the atoms of organism (human body) is replaced.

The body does not have a constant material.

And, in certain time the materials inside body are to produce thousands of times biological chemical reactions every second.

Radionuclide analysis for human species


R adio i mmuno a ssay more compactly as ria

Radioimmunoassay more compactly as RIA

RIA as a kind of technology take the both advantages of accuracy and sensitivity of the radioactive isotope measurement and the specificity of the reaction of antigen and antibody.

It is a new in vitro technology for ultra trace (10-9~10-15g) material detection.

(10-9~10-15g)


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Broadly, all the assay technologies via immune reactions by antigen and antibody which tagged by radioactive isotopescan be called RIA

So far has development to the fifth generation of RIA technology. It is characterised by the combination of magnetic particles and RIA or IRMA (immunoradiometric assay) .


Pet ct positron emission tomography ct

PET / CTPositron emission tomography + CT

PET/CT is a perfect fusing of PET and CT.

It can Provide detailed lesion function and metabolic information of moleculars by PET , and in the same time, provide the accurate lesion anatomic localization by CT.

It is characterised by sensitivity, accuration, specific and accurate location.

It is extensive used in radiotherapy, and also be called the high-tech coronal of Modern medicine.


The mechanics of pet

The Mechanics of PET

The clinicalimaging process of PET is as followes:

a. Mark the radioactive isotopes which can emit positrons (such as F-18) to compounds which be gonna to participate in tissue blood flow, or in metabolic process.

b. Inject the tagged compounds into human body.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

c. Theemission positron from radio-isotope can shift 1 mm in human body, and then combined with an electron in tissues and annihilate to produce two equal energy (511 KeV) and opposite photons.

It was recognized that detection of these photons, using the property that they are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions, would permit description, in three dimensions, of the distribution of the radionuclides in the body.


Sketch map of pet

Sketch map of PET

PET imaging of an object surrounded by a ring of detectors. Annihilation photons aare recorded by detectors on opposite sides of the ring,

the relative intensities allow determination of the mass thickness of the distances L1 and L2 in the patient through which these photons travel.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

d. Annihilation photons leaving the body are detected by an array of detectors that surround the patient.

Events are recorded only when two detectors each detect an annihilation photon simultaneously, i.e., within 10 to 25 ns of each other. Events separated further in time are not recorded.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

The line joining the two recording detectors is a line of response (LOR) along which the annihilation photons have traveled and on which the positron decay occurred.

This coincident detection technique allows a determination of the direction of the annihilation photons without the physical collimation needed in SPECT. For this reason coincident detection is often called electronic collimation.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

PMT(Photo Multiplier Tube)

BGO (Bismuth Germanium Oxide


Radiation imaging nmr

Radiation Imaging & NMR

X ray Radiography, and DSA

Digital subtraction angiography

Computed Tomography CT

Magnetic Resonance Imaging NMR

Function NMRNMR spectrum analysation

4D fast CT and 4D fastNMR


Background rationale

Background & Rationale

  • Convolution

h(t)e(t)y(t)


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • tF


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Xhfghfg


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Fourier transformation

  • /

  • Two features

    1. ,,

    2. ,.,


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Laplace transformation


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

fourierlaplace

fourierfourierj


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Zlaplacez=esTT=T

  • ZZ


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Question 1

  • What is the main difference between fourier transformation and laplace transformation ?

    main differencelaplace transformation is in whole complex planeand fourier transformation is just in imaginary axis.

  • Question 2

  • What is the physical and mathematical significance of laplace transformation?

    physical significance: It establishes the relationship between the time domain and complex frequency domain.

    mathematical significance: Converts differential equation to Algebraic equation, so as to simplify the calculation.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

NMR

  • ,

    E = h

    radio frequency pulse, RF


The quantum mechanical describes for nmr

The quantum mechanical describes for NMR


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Background rational

Background & Rational

  • Quantum mechanics

  • Fourier transformation


Radiation oncology

Radiation Oncology

Teletherapy

Brachytherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

P, C

Teletherapy

X rays

Electrons

Elements used in teleradiotherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

4DRT

CRT

IMRT

Teletherapy

Techniques used in teleradiotherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Iodine

BNCT

boron neutron

capture therapy

Ir-192

Cobalt-60

Brachytherapy

Elements used in brachytherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

(125)I implantation

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy

After loading

radiotherapy

Intracavity afterloading radiotherapy

Techniques applied in brachyradiotherapy

Seeds implant

Interstitial implant

brachytherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

After-loading Intracavitary unit

A2cm

2cm

BA3cm


Paris dosimetry system

Paris Dosimetry System


Interstitial radiation

Interstitial Radiation


Synopsis of the tele radiotherapy

Synopsis of the Tele-radiotherapy


What is radiotherapy rt

What is Radiotherapy (RT)

RT is a clinical subject of treating cancers by applying the theories and means of high energy rays to irradiate tumor targets.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

What is Radiation ?


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

The most frequently used elements in RT


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Candidate particles


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Why RT can cure cancer disease--

1. RT is based on ionizing radiation

2. Ionization can inducetraumainjury

ionization

lethal damage

SSB

DSB

()

sublethal damage

potential lethal damage


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

3. Some type of cancer more sensitive to ionization irradiation than normal cells (sigmoid curves)

tumor

Normal tissue

More separating the curves in dose is,

more higher the curable probability be.


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

The role of RT in tumor treatment

Out of control

Till now, surgery, RT and chemotherapy are the major three ways to treat cancers. Nearly 2/3 of cancer patients need RT.

But radiotherapy has no good response for some patients, the main reason is that the 10%- 50 % of hypoxic cells in solid tumors have low response to radiotherapy


How the rt is performed the flow chart of rt

How the RT is performed?The flow chart of RT

treatment

follow up

TPS

Virtual simulation and image fusion

CT SCAN

PET/CT MRI

To localization

Medical evaluation

(include pathologyphysicallab test, image)

Portal verification

QA


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Simplified Radiotherapy Treatment Flow


The composition of rt

The composition of RT

Radiotherapy includes four branches:

1. Radiation Oncology

2. Radiation Physics

3. Radiobiology

4. Radiation Technology


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

A.Some important concepts


1 liner energy transfer let for short

1. Liner Energy Transfer.

LET for short

E

LET =

KeV/

X


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

2. Ionization induced Direct and Indirect effects

Direct Directly act on target molecules

( Break DNA double strands )

: DNA

IndirectAffect target molecules via ionized

& excitated water molecules H2O


3 oxygen enhancement ratio oer

3. Oxygen Enhancement Ratio . OER

D0(dose for killing hypoxic cells)

OER =

D0 (dose for killing aerobic cells)


4 relative biological effect rbe

4. Relative Biological Effect . RBE

Doses which create a certain bio-effect by one standard ray

RBE =

Doses which create the same bio-effect by another ray


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

5. The characteristic of high LET rays

LET

a. There is a Bragg Peak

b. RBE OER

c. Direct effects is major


Cell phase independent only for high let

Cell phase independent

(Only for high LET)


6 absorbed dose d e ab m e ab is absorbed energy m is mass

6Absorbed Dose

D = Eab / m

Eab is absorbed energym is mass


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

7Kerma

Kinetic energy released per unit mass

K = dEtr / dm

It applies to indirect ionizing radiation

It is differ from the Karma in Buddhism.


8 cema converted energy per unit mass it applies to direct ionizing radiation d e c d m

8Cema ()

Converted energy per unit mass

It applies to direct ionizing radiation

dEc dm


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

  • Question 3

    Please describe the definitions and formulasof concepts Cema & Kerma?


9 the relative dominant area of three main effects of photon media interaction s

9The relative dominant area of three main effects of photon-media interactions

These three effects are other than three actions, so called electromagnetic action,

weak action,

strong action.

Photoelectric effect


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

104Rconcept in RT

Cells be irradiated will experience four occurrences which named 4R.

4R --- Repair

Regeneration

Redistribution

Reoxygenation


Question 4

Question 4

  • What is 4R in radiobiology?


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

5


Three aspects in modern rt

Three aspects in modern RT

host

servant

servant

Position verification

Irradiation techniques

Dose verification


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

If you cant see it , you cant hit it

If you cant hit it, you cant cure it


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Historical Review

Experimental aspects

Theoretical aspects


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Historical review

1. Experimental Discovery

1.1 In 1895, Roentgen discovered X rays

In 1901, He won the first Nobel Prize

1.2 In 1896, Becquerel discovered radioactive element of uranium

1.3 In July 1898, Madame Curie and her husband got a great success that they discovered the radioactive element, polonium, which Marie named after Poland.

1.4 The discoveries of rays

Rutherfords atomic model (1911)


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Historical review

2. Theoretic Discovery

---Full of seminal ideas


2 1 microcosmic scale quantum mechanics

2.1 Microcosmic ScaleQuantum Mechanics

  • layer of structure

D~/mc

10-14m

(10fm)

Nucleus

10-10m

Atom

10-15m

(fm)

Nucleon

10-18m

quark

Wave-Particle Duality, Probbility, Entanglement


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Schdinger- equation (introduce operator & complex number)

Klein-Gordon- equation

Dirac- equation (import spin matrix & Quaternions )

E i/t, P -i/r

E=p2/2m

E2=p2c2+m2c4

E=(p2+m2)1/2

=pc+mc2


2 2 high energy relativity

2.2 High energyRelativity

High energy particles belong to

Relative territory.

~

The relative particles should suffice 1. Lorentz-transform invariance; 2. Curved space time.

Q+L

Particles

Nucleus

For particles, the criteria to distinguish

whether it is a relative particle or not is:


2 3 particles creating annihilating quantum field theory

2.3 Particles creating & annihilating Quantum Field Theory

There are three types of quantum field theories

In 1934Pauliand Weisskopf pointed outthat just like Maxwell equation, K-G equation as well as Dirac equation are all the field equations.

K-Gs is for scalar field, which spin is most meson

Diracs is for rotary field(), which spin is

Maxwells is for vector field, which spin is photon

*

*


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

43/2 1/21


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

c. The Revolution in Radiotherapy


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Highlight some of the technologies

Highlight some of the technologies


Just like a robot

Just like a robot


Tomotherapy can irradiate while rotating

Tomotherapy()can irradiate while rotating


Can check position while irradiating

Can check position while irradiating


Proton radiotherapy

Proton Radiotherapy


Let rbe

LET & RBE

LETRBE(1.0)LETRBE(2.0)LETRBE20keV/mLETOER160keV/mRBEOER1LETRBED0()RBERBE


The pdd comparisons of varies rays

The PDD comparisons of varies rays

Electron

beam


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

How to treat moving target?


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

Movement and deformation


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

RPM Real-time Position Management

Respirationsynchronised imaging and treatment


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is a non-invasive, video based system that allows for clean imaging and treatment of lung, breast, and upper abdominal sites.

The RPM system is accurate, easy to use and fast. It is comfortable for the patient and accommodates both breath hold and free breathing protocols.


The problem of rpm

The problem of RPM


Chapter 14 medical applications of nuclear technology

4D real time tracing system

4D Tx delivery Visualization:

Internal magnetic marker displacement (Calypso)

Calypso system: response

Next step after RPM


Thank you for your kind attention

Thank you for your kind attention !


  • Login