Decolonization or Independence Movements in Asia, Africa, & the Middle East. 1920s – 1980s. Overview . By the mid-20 th century, many colonies in Africa, Asia & the Middle East had “freed” themselves from European dominance.
1920s – 1980s
By the mid-20th century, many colonies in Africa, Asia & the Middle East had “freed” themselves from European dominance.
Decolonization is the term historians have used to describe this process
What forces led to the end of European colonial empires?
The many differing African & Asian groups used a variety of elements in their efforts to gain independence. Some of these include . . .
“What do you think? Wherein in courage required – in blowing others to pieces from behind a cannon, or with a smiling face to approach a cannon and be blown to pieces?...Believe me that a man devoid of courage and manhood can never be a passive resister.”
In the end...
Both suffer from religious & ethic conflictsPakistan (1947) & Sri Lanka (1948)
¾ = 16 mill Buddhists
1/5 = Tamils (Hindu)
Tamil militants want a separate nation
83’ India tried unsuccessfully to help disarm the Tamils to end the violence.
May 2009 Tamil “Tigers” leader killed, they lose, civil war over!?
Look for such trends in the problems facing decolonizing countries
In addition, …
Two major methods in Africa:
has gone back & forth btwn military & civililand gov’t.s & it continues to struggle for economic stability.
1979 an Air Force pilot Jerry Rawlings seized power & again in 1981.
2000 the first open election was held
July 1962 = Independence
UK- Mandates of:
? of Palestinian rights, boundaries & access to things like water & farmland went undetermined
1st of many Arab-Israeli Wars (56, 67, 73, 2006) . This ended w/in months in Israel’s Victory. Israel had strong US support