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The history and distinctions of Conservation Biology 保育生物學. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境與生態學院 院長 [email protected] 保育生物學. 教科書內容的比較 生態觀 大眾的覺醒 人和環境的研究 環保重要里程碑 保育生物學的界定: 本體的問題、四項基本假定、保育倫理、 特質、相關學科 保育生物學者研究的主題. The history and distinctions of conservation biology.

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The history and distinctions of conservation biology

The history and distinctions of Conservation Biology

(Ayo)

[email protected]


The history and distinctions of conservation biology


The history and distinctions of conservation biology1

The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • The origins and history of conservation and conservation biology ()

  • The conceptual distinctions and distinguishing scientific paradigms of conservation biology ()

  • The kinds of problems that conservation biologists investigate and attempt to solve. ()


Contents i

Contents I

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • Part One Foundations

    • Chap. 1 the history and distinctions of conservation biology

    • Chap. 2 the Legal foundations of conservation biology

    • Chap. 3 Values and ethics in Conservation

    • Chap. 4 Biodiversity: concept, measurement, and challenge

    • Chap. 5 The historic and foundational paradigms of conservation biology

  • Part Two Concepts

  • Part Three Applications


Contents ii

Contents II

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • Part One Foundations

  • Part Two Concepts

    • Chap. 6 The conservation of genetic diversity

    • Chap. 7 The conservation of populations

    • Chap. 8 The conservation of habitat and landscape

    • Chap. 9 The conservation of aquatic systems

    • Chap. 10 Ecosystem management

  • Part Three Applications

    • Chap. 11 Restoration Ecology

    • Chap. 12 Conservation, Economics, and Sustainable development


The rise of conservation biology

The rise of Conservation Biology

Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Conservation biology is a young science that is still establishing its own boundaries and relationships with other disciplines.

    • conservation ethic ()

    • ()


Conservation biology

Conservation Biology

Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Part 1

    • Chap. 1 The natural world

    • Chap. 2 Major world ecosystems

  • Part 2

    • Chap. 3 The human impact

    • Chap. 4 Effects of habitat destruction

    • Chap. 5 Effects of habitat disturbance

    • Chap. 6 Non-sustainable use

  • Part 3


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Part 1

  • Part 2

  • Part 3

    • Chap. 7 The rise of conservation biology

    • Chap. 8 Selecting protected areas

    • Chap. 9 Design and management of protected areas

    • Chap. 10 Protecting species. I. In situ conservation

    • Chap. 11 Protecting species. II. Ex situ conservtion and reintroduction

    • Chap. 12 Landscape scale conservation

    • Chap. 13 Conserving the evolutionary process

    • Chap. 14 Ecological restoration

    • Chap.15 Putting the science in to practice


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, and C. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology. 3rd. Ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc.


Brief contents i

Brief contents I

Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, D. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of conservation. 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc.

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations ()

    • Chap. 1. What is conservation biology?

    • Chap. 2. Global biodiversity

    • Chap. 3. Threats to biodiversity

    • Chap. 4. Conservation values and ethics

    • Chap. 5. Ecological economics and nature conservation

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

    • ()

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems

    • ()


Brief contents ii

Brief contents II

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

    • Chap. 6. Habitat degradation and loss

    • Chap. 7. Habitat fragmentation

    • Chap. 8. Overexploitation

    • Chap. 9. Species invasions

    • Chap. 10. Biological impacts of climate change

    • Chap. 11. Conservation genetics

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems


Brief contents iii

Brief contents III

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems

    • Chap. 12. Species and Landscape approaches to conservation

    • Chap. 13. Ecosystem approaches to conservation

    • Chap. 14. Protected areas

    • Chap. 15. Restoration of damaged ecosystems and endangered populations

    • Chap. 16. Sustainable development

    • Chap. 17. The integration of conservation science and policy

    • Chap. 18. Meeting conservation challenges in the twenty-first century


The background of ecology

The background of ecology ()

4th/(providential)

  • Aristotle

  • Herodotus and Plato,


The background of ecology1

The background of ecology ()

17th - 19th

  • Graunt (1662) 64

  • Leeuweenhoek (1687)

    746,496

  • Buffon (1756) Natural History /

  • Malthus (1798) Essay on Population. (checked)


The background of ecology2

The background of ecology ()

  • Farr (1834): Malthus

  • 20th : ,

  • 1900Ecology

  • ()


Public awakens

(Public awakens)()

  • 19301970

  • A. Bramwell (1989) : 1970 Ecologism () ()

  • 1800


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

()

  • G. P. Marsh (1864): Man and Nature.

  • E. Haeckel (1900): The Riddle of the universe.

    (1905): The wonders of Life.

    / back-to-the-land movement

    / /

  • J. Ritchie (1920): The influence of man on

    animal life in Scotland.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

()

  • P. B. Sears (1935): Deserts on the march.

  • W. Vogt (1948): Road to survival.

  • F. Osburn (1948): Our plundered () planet.

  • W. L. Thomas (1956): Man's role in changing the

    face of the Earth. Proceedings of symposium.

  • Rachel Carson (1962): Silent Spring. ()

  • P. R. Ehrlich (1968): The population Bomb.

  • G. Hardin (1968): The tragedy of the commons. ()

  • I. L. McHarg (1969): Design with Nature.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

()

  • P. Shepard and D. McKinley (1969):

    The subversive Scinece. ()

  • E. Callenbach (1970): Ecotopia. ()

  • D. H. Meadows, D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and

  • W. W. Berhens III (1972): The limits to growth.()

  • IUCN (1980): World Conservation Strategy.()

  • Council on Environmental Quality (1980): Global 2000 (2000)


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

()

  • 1605 , Fenmen

  • 1870 Merritt

  • 1872 ,

  • 1900 Lacey Act (),

  • 1903 , , Pelican island

  • 1918


1960s

() (1960s)

  • 1964 (Wilderness Act)

  • 1966 endangered species act passed.

  • 1967 International Biological Program (IBP)

    : , , , , ...

    : (1)

    (2)

    (3)

    (4)

    (5) ,


1970s 90s

() (1970s-90s)

  • 1970 (NEPA)

  • 1970 (Earth day)

  • 1970 UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program.

  • 1980 IUCN World Conservation Strategy.()

  • 1983

  • 1992 ()

  • 2000 International Biodiversity Observation Year

  • 2001

  • 2002


A year for biodiversity

A Year for Biodiversity

() (2000) BioScience

  • (International Biodiversity Observation Year IBOY)DIVERSITASDIVERSITAS


The problem of identity

The problem of identity ()

  • To survive and grow, a discipline requires a unique conceptual framework () and a set of identifiable intellectual distinctions that can be shared by a professional community with a common mission.

  • Michael Soule, one of the founders of conservation biology, said, disciplines are not logical constructs; they are social crystallizations which occur when a group of people agree that association and discourse serve their interests. Conservation biology began when a critical mass of people agreed that they were conservation biologists (Soule, 1986).


Conservation biology1

Conservation biology

  • As the science of scarcity and abundance ()

  • As application of biology to the care and protection of plants and animals to prevent their loss or waste (Meffe and Carroll, 1997)

  • On the preservation of biodiversity (the entire range of all species).


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

  • Diversity of organisms is good

    • Humans seem to inherently enjoy diversity of life forms (called biophilia by E. O. Wilson, 1984).

  • Ecological complexity is good

  • Evolution is good.

  • Biotic diversity has intrinsic value, regardless of its utilitarian value.


Conservation ethics

Conservation ethics ()

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • All living creatures possess intrinsic value ().

  • The physical environment and the living organisms in natural ecosystem perform vital services and produce goods essential to the continuance of human civilizations (). Further, the species within the ecosystems are vital for maintaining their function and structure.

  • The physical environment and its creatures add value, knowledge and meaning () to the experience of being human and to the appreciation of higher values and virtues.


Conservation biology2

Conservation biology

  • Both value laden () and mission driven ().

  • Advocacy oriented ()

  • A crisis-oriented () discipline

  • Integrative and multidisciplinary nature

  • Concerned with evolutionary time (genetic heritage)

  • Adaptive science, with a higher degree of uncertainty ().

  • A legally empowered science.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

  • Ecology, systematics, genetics, and behavior

  • Wildlife ecology, fisheries management, forestry, and range management


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

  • The conservation of genetic diversity

  • The conservation of species

  • The conservation of habitat

  • The management of landscapes () through ecosystem processes

  • Sustainable development () of human economies and human populations. ()


1 the conservation of genetic diversity

1. The conservation of genetic diversity

  • Inbreeding depression

  • Genetic drift ()

  • Fixation of harmful alleles

  • Hybridization and introgression


2 the conservation of species

2. The conservation of species

  • Minimum viable population (MVP)

  • Population viability analysis (PVA)

  • Small-population paradigm

  • Declining population paradigm

  • Metapopulation theory


3 the conservation of habitat

3. The conservation of habitat

  • Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, habitat isolation

  • The theory of island biogeography ()

  • Habitat heterogeneity

  • Restoration ecology ()


4 the management of landscape through ecosystem processes

4. The management of landscape through ecosystem processes

  • Ecosystem management ()

  • Any land management system that seeks to protect viable populations of all native species, perpetuates natural disturbance regimes on the regional scale, adopts a planning timeline of centuries, and allows human use at levels that do not result in long-term ecological degradation. (Noss and Cooperrider, 1994)

  • Integrates scientific knowledge of ecological relationships within a complex sociopolitical and values framework toward the general goal of protecting native ecosystem integrity over the long term (Grumbine, 1994)


5 sustainable development of human economies and human populations

5. Sustainable development of human economies and human populations

  • conservation biology must address problems of economic development and the growth of human populations.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, and C. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology. 3rd. Ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc.


Chapter 1 what is conservation biology

Chapter 1What is conservation biology?

  • Expanding human demands on Earth

    • (Fig. 1.1, 1.2)

    • (Fig. 1.3)

    • Human footprint () (Fig. 1.4)

    • Stewardship () of natural biodiversity

      • Requires a strong link be forged between conservation biology and environmentally sustainable development.

  • Responding to Global change

    • Conservation biology as a crisis discipline


10 10 1 10 7 000 1 1400ad 1875ad 1950ad

10~10- ~110~7,000 1~1400AD~1875AD~1950AD


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

()

  • Wackernagel, M. (1996) Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the Earth.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology


Conservation in the us

Conservation in the US

  • Three philosophical movement, two of the nineteenth century and one of the twentieth.

  • The Romantic Transcendental Conservation Ethic

    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir

  • Resource Conservation Ethic

    • Gifford Pinchot

    • Utilitarian philosophy of John Stuart Mill

    • Anthropocentric valuing of nature

  • Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic (Aldo Leopold)

    • Equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium


Modern conservation biology

Modern conservation biology

  • 1960s-1980s

  • 1985, the society for Conservation Biology,

  • 1987, the first issue of the journal Conservation Biology

  • Biological Conservation, the Journal of Wildlife Management, and Conservation in Practice (1999)


Fig 1 7 the first issue of the journal conservation biology published in may 1987

Fig. 1.7 The first issue of the journal Conservation Biology, published in May 1987.


Guiding principles for cb

Guiding principles for CB

  • Evolution is the basic axiom that unites all of biology (The evolutionary play)

  • The ecological world is dynamic and largely nonequilibrial (the ecological theater)

  • Human presence must be included in conservation planning (Humans are part of the play)


Pervasive

(pervasive)

  • A discipline responding to an immense crisis. ()

  • A multidisciplinary science

  • An inexact science ()

    • Precautionary principle ()(p.23)

  • A value-laden science ()

  • A science with an evolutionary time scale

  • A science of eternal vigilance ()


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Fig. 1.9 The interdisciplinary nature of conservation biology merges many traditional fields of natural and social sciences, and the humanities.


The history and distinctions of conservation biology

http://mail.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/


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