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The history and distinctions of Conservation Biology 保育生物學. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境與生態學院 院長 [email protected] 保育生物學. 教科書內容的比較 生態觀 大眾的覺醒 人和環境的研究 環保重要里程碑 保育生物學的界定: 本體的問題、四項基本假定、保育倫理、 特質、相關學科 保育生物學者研究的主題. The history and distinctions of conservation biology.

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The history and distinctions of conservation biology

The history and distinctions of Conservation Biology保育生物學

鄭先祐(Ayo)

國立台南大學 環境與生態學院 院長

[email protected]


保育生物學

  • 教科書內容的比較

  • 生態觀

  • 大眾的覺醒

  • 人和環境的研究

  • 環保重要里程碑

  • 保育生物學的界定:

    • 本體的問題、四項基本假定、保育倫理、

    • 特質、相關學科

  • 保育生物學者研究的主題


The history and distinctions of conservation biology1
The history and distinctions of conservation biology

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • The origins and history of conservation and conservation biology (保育和保育生物學的歷史淵源)

  • The conceptual distinctions and distinguishing scientific paradigms of conservation biology (保育生物學的領域界定)

  • The kinds of problems that conservation biologists investigate and attempt to solve. (保育生物學者研究的主題)


Contents i
Contents I

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • Part One Foundations

    • Chap. 1 the history and distinctions of conservation biology

    • Chap. 2 the Legal foundations of conservation biology

    • Chap. 3 Values and ethics in Conservation

    • Chap. 4 Biodiversity: concept, measurement, and challenge

    • Chap. 5 The historic and foundational paradigms of conservation biology

  • Part Two Concepts

  • Part Three Applications


Contents ii
Contents II

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • Part One Foundations

  • Part Two Concepts

    • Chap. 6 The conservation of genetic diversity

    • Chap. 7 The conservation of populations

    • Chap. 8 The conservation of habitat and landscape

    • Chap. 9 The conservation of aquatic systems

    • Chap. 10 Ecosystem management

  • Part Three Applications

    • Chap. 11 Restoration Ecology

    • Chap. 12 Conservation, Economics, and Sustainable development


The rise of conservation biology
The rise of Conservation Biology

Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Conservation biology is a young science that is still establishing its own boundaries and relationships with other disciplines.

  • 本章的內容

    • 根源:conservation ethic (保育倫理)

    • 保育生物學的科學領域

    • 與其他學科的關聯(保育行動)


Conservation biology
Conservation Biology

Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Part 1

    • Chap. 1 The natural world

    • Chap. 2 Major world ecosystems

  • Part 2

    • Chap. 3 The human impact

    • Chap. 4 Effects of habitat destruction

    • Chap. 5 Effects of habitat disturbance

    • Chap. 6 Non-sustainable use

  • Part 3


Pullin, A. S, (2002) Conservation Biology, Chap.7. The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.

  • Part 1

  • Part 2

  • Part 3

    • Chap. 7 The rise of conservation biology

    • Chap. 8 Selecting protected areas

    • Chap. 9 Design and management of protected areas

    • Chap. 10 Protecting species. I. In situ conservation

    • Chap. 11 Protecting species. II. Ex situ conservtion and reintroduction

    • Chap. 12 Landscape scale conservation

    • Chap. 13 Conserving the evolutionary process

    • Chap. 14 Ecological restoration

    • Chap.15 Putting the science in to practice


Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, and C. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology. 3rd. Ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc.


Brief contents i
Brief contents I Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, D. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of conservation. 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc.

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations (基礎觀念)

    • Chap. 1. What is conservation biology?

    • Chap. 2. Global biodiversity

    • Chap. 3. Threats to biodiversity

    • Chap. 4. Conservation values and ethics

    • Chap. 5. Ecological economics and nature conservation

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

    • (對生物多樣性的威脅)

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems

    • (化解保育問題的途徑)


Brief contents ii
Brief contents II Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

    • Chap. 6. Habitat degradation and loss

    • Chap. 7. Habitat fragmentation

    • Chap. 8. Overexploitation

    • Chap. 9. Species invasions

    • Chap. 10. Biological impacts of climate change

    • Chap. 11. Conservation genetics

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems


Brief contents iii
Brief contents III Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Unit I Conceptual foundations

  • Unit II Focus on primary threats to biodiversity

  • Unit III approaches to solving conservation problems

    • Chap. 12. Species and Landscape approaches to conservation

    • Chap. 13. Ecosystem approaches to conservation

    • Chap. 14. Protected areas

    • Chap. 15. Restoration of damaged ecosystems and endangered populations

    • Chap. 16. Sustainable development

    • Chap. 17. The integration of conservation science and policy

    • Chap. 18. Meeting conservation challenges in the twenty-first century


The background of ecology
The background of ecology Principles of Conservation Biology. 3生態觀 (一) 「自然平衡」

西元前4th世紀:自然平衡/神意的(providential)生態學

  • Aristotle:田鼠的高生殖率,可產生更多田鼠,受其天敵減少數量,如:狐狸、白鼬、人的控制、大雨。

  • Herodotus and Plato:自然被設計成保育每一種生物。每一種生物於自然中都有其特定的位置;絕種並未發生, 因若發生將破壞大自然的平衡與和諧。


The background of ecology1
The background of ecology Principles of Conservation Biology. 3生態觀 (二) 「自然和諧」

17th - 19th 世紀:自然和諧

  • Graunt (1662) 人口數學化,以出生率,死亡率,性別比年齡結構,預測倫敦人口於64年間加倍。

  • Leeuweenhoek (1687) 計算母蒼蠅產下的卵數,估

    計一對蒼蠅三個月內可產生746,496個蒼蠅。

  • Buffon (1756) Natural History 族群調控/ 疾病,食物不足

  • Malthus (1798) Essay on Population. 生殖終要受 食物的生產量的限制(checked)


The background of ecology2
The background of ecology Principles of Conservation Biology. 3生態觀 (三) 達爾文的「演化論」

  • Farr (1834): Malthus 推測食物生產量以等差級數增加,這並不真實,至少在美國,食物生產量是以等比級數增加,甚至比人口成長更快。

  • 20th 世紀: 「天擇」與「為生存奮鬥」,

    逐漸取代「自然平衡與神意的」生態學。

  • 於1900年前,Ecology 逐漸成為「科學」

  • 根源於:自然史、人口學、生物統計學、

    農業和醫學(公共衛生、傳染病)之應用。


Public awakens
大眾覺醒 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3(Public awakens)(一)

  • 雖然應用生態學早在1930年代興起,但要一直到1970年代,才因大眾的關注而逐漸受重視。

  • A. Bramwell (1989) 稱: 1970年代的環保和生態運動是 Ecologism (生態主義) (生態主張)

  • 「人和環境」的研究,追溯至1800年代。


Principles of Conservation Biology. 3人和環境」的研究 (一)

  • G. P. Marsh (1864): Man and Nature.

  • E. Haeckel (1900): The Riddle of the universe.

    (1905): The wonders of Life.

    / back-to-the-land movement

    / 有機農業/土壤和森林保育

  • J. Ritchie (1920): The influence of man on

    animal life in Scotland.


Principles of Conservation Biology. 3人和環境」的研究 (二)

  • P. B. Sears (1935): Deserts on the march.

  • W. Vogt (1948): Road to survival.

  • F. Osburn (1948): Our plundered (掠奪的) planet.

  • W. L. Thomas (1956): Man's role in changing the

    face of the Earth. Proceedings of symposium.

  • Rachel Carson (1962): Silent Spring. (寂靜的春天)

  • P. R. Ehrlich (1968): The population Bomb.

  • G. Hardin (1968): The tragedy of the commons. (公共財的悲劇)

  • I. L. McHarg (1969): Design with Nature.


Principles of Conservation Biology. 3人和環境」的研究 (三)

  • P. Shepard and D. McKinley (1969):

    The subversive Scinece. (顛覆性的科學)

  • E. Callenbach (1970): Ecotopia. (生態托邦)

  • D. H. Meadows, D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and

  • W. W. Berhens III (1972): The limits to growth.(成長的極限)

  • IUCN (1980): World Conservation Strategy.(世界保育策略)

  • Council on Environmental Quality (1980): Global 2000 (全球2000)


環保重要里程碑 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3(一)

  • 1605 英國東海岸沼澤濕地開發計劃, 被 Fenmen 阻止。

  • 1870 美國官方第一個野生動物保護區設立於加州Merritt湖。

  • 1872 黃石國家公園, 美國第一個國家公園設立。

  • 1900 Lacey Act (法案), 美國聯邦野生動物保護法案簽定。

  • 1903 美國第一個聯邦野生動物保留區, 佛州, Pelican island

  • 1918 美國和加拿大簽定遷移候鳥保護法案。


1960s
環保重要里程碑 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3(二) (1960s)

  • 1964 野地法案(Wilderness Act) 簽定。

  • 1966 endangered species act passed.

  • 1967 美國 International Biological Program (IBP)

    研究生態体系: 凍原, 針葉林, 落葉林, 沙漠, ...

    目標: (1) 瞭解生態体系內的各種因素間的互動。

    (2) 研析增加生物的生產力。

    (3) 增進預測影響的能力。

    (4) 增進經營自然資源的能力。

    (5) 增進對人類基因, 生理和行為適應的知識。


1970s 90s
環保重要里程碑 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3(三) (1970s-90s)

  • 1970 國家環境政策(NEPA) 和清淨空氣法案立法。

  • 1970 第一次「地球日」(Earth day)

  • 1970 UNESCO 的 Man and the Biosphere Program.

  • 1980 IUCN 發行 World Conservation Strategy.(世界保育策略)

  • 1983 核子戰爭的長期全球生物影響研討會

  • 1992 聯合國的環境與發展的國際大會於巴西舉行。(里約)

  • 2000 International Biodiversity Observation Year

  • 2001 全球綠盟大會

  • 2002 可持續發展的世界高峰會議


A year for biodiversity
A Year for Biodiversity Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

(『生物龐雜度』之年) (2000) BioScience

  • 內容:『國際生物龐雜度關注之年』(International Biodiversity Observation Year,簡稱 IBOY)將聯合相關『生物龐雜度』科學的進展,且提升其在決策和大眾心目中的地位。這項計畫已經得到『DIVERSITAS』的贊助。『DIVERSITAS』是一個國際科學團體,致力於從基因至生態體系各個生物層面的龐雜度之研究。


The problem of identity
The problem of identity Principles of Conservation Biology. 3(本體的問題)

  • To survive and grow, a discipline requires a unique conceptual framework (獨特的觀念架構) and a set of identifiable intellectual distinctions that can be shared by a professional community with a common mission.

  • Michael Soule, one of the founders of conservation biology, said, “disciplines are not logical constructs; they are social crystallizations which occur when a group of people agree that association and discourse serve their interests. Conservation biology began when a critical mass of people agreed that they were conservation biologists” (Soule, 1986).


Conservation biology1
Conservation biology Principles of Conservation Biology. 3的界定

  • As the science of scarcity and abundance (稀有和豐富)

  • As “application of biology to the care and protection of plants and animals to prevent their loss or waste” (Meffe and Carroll, 1997)

  • On the preservation of biodiversity (the entire range of all species).


四項基本假定 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Diversity of organisms is good

    • Humans seem to inherently enjoy diversity of life forms (called biophilia by E. O. Wilson, 1984).

  • Ecological complexity is good

  • Evolution is good.

  • Biotic diversity has intrinsic value, regardless of its utilitarian value.


Conservation ethics
Conservation ethics Principles of Conservation Biology. 3 (保育倫理)

Dyke, F. V. (2003) Conservation Biology. McGraw-Hill Inc.

  • All living creatures possess intrinsic value (內在價值).

  • The physical environment and the living organisms in natural ecosystem perform vital services and produce goods essential to the continuance of human civilizations (人類文明的持續). Further, the species within the ecosystems are vital for maintaining their function and structure.

  • The physical environment and its creatures add value, knowledge and meaning (價值,知識和意義) to the experience of being human and to the appreciation of higher values and virtues.


Conservation biology2
Conservation biology Principles of Conservation Biology. 3的特質

  • Both value laden (負有價值取向) and mission driven (任務導向).

  • Advocacy oriented (倡導取向)

  • A crisis-oriented (危機取向) discipline

  • Integrative and multidisciplinary nature

  • Concerned with evolutionary time (genetic heritage)

  • Adaptive science, with a higher degree of uncertainty (不確定性).

  • A legally empowered science.


相關學科 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Ecology, systematics, genetics, and behavior

  • Wildlife ecology, fisheries management, forestry, and range management


保育生物學者研究的主題 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • The conservation of genetic diversity

  • The conservation of species

  • The conservation of habitat

  • The management of landscapes (地景的經營) through ecosystem processes

  • Sustainable development (可持續發展) of human economies and human populations. (經濟和人口)


1 the conservation of genetic diversity
1. The conservation of genetic diversity Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Inbreeding depression

  • Genetic drift (基因飄移)

  • Fixation of harmful alleles

  • Hybridization and introgression


2 the conservation of species
2. The conservation of species Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Minimum viable population (MVP)

  • Population viability analysis (PVA)

  • Small-population paradigm

  • Declining population paradigm

  • Metapopulation theory


3 the conservation of habitat
3. The conservation of habitat Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, habitat isolation

  • The theory of island biogeography (島嶼生物地理學)

  • Habitat heterogeneity

  • Restoration ecology (復育生態學)


4 the management of landscape through ecosystem processes
4. The management of landscape through ecosystem processes Principles of Conservation Biology. 3

  • Ecosystem management (生態體系的經營)

  • Any land management system that seeks to protect viable populations of all native species, perpetuates natural disturbance regimes on the regional scale, adopts a planning timeline of centuries, and allows human use at levels that do not result in long-term ecological degradation. (Noss and Cooperrider, 1994)

  • Integrates scientific knowledge of ecological relationships within a complex sociopolitical and values framework toward the general goal of protecting native ecosystem integrity over the long term (Grumbine, 1994)


5 sustainable development of human economies and human populations
5. Sustainable development of human economies and human populations

  • 雖然保育生物學源自於生物學和生態學,傳統上關注於「非人類世界」,但是conservation biology must address problems of economic development and the growth of human populations.


Groom, M. J., G. K. Meffe, and C. R. Carroll (2006) Principles of Conservation Biology. 3rd. Ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc.


Chapter 1 what is conservation biology
Chapter 1 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3What is conservation biology?

  • Expanding human demands on Earth

    • 人口數量 (Fig. 1.1, 1.2)

    • 平均每人的消費量 (Fig. 1.3)

    • Human footprint (足跡) (Fig. 1.4)

    • Stewardship (領導地位) of natural biodiversity

      • Requires a strong link be forged between conservation biology and environmentally sustainable development.

  • Responding to Global change

    • Conservation biology as a “crisis discipline”


10 10 1 10 7 000 1 1400ad 1875ad 1950ad
10 Principles of Conservation Biology. 3萬年來,人類平均每人每年消耗的能量。原始時期~10萬年前;狩獵-採集 ~1萬年前至10萬年前;早期農業~7,000 年前至1萬年前;文明興起:~1400AD;工業時代~1875AD;科技時代~1950AD。


科技讓我們可以享受得更多。但問題是資源的再生來源科技讓我們可以享受得更多。但問題是資源的再生來源(太陽)並沒有增加。

  • Wackernagel, M. (1996) Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the Earth.

過去

現代



Conservation in the us
Conservation in the US現代的科技不僅可挖掘出更多的資源,同時也造成許多的滲漏與浪費,且更是產生許多污染。

  • Three philosophical movement, two of the nineteenth century and one of the twentieth.

  • The Romantic Transcendental Conservation Ethic

    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir

    • 自然不只是為人類的經濟使用。

  • Resource Conservation Ethic

    • Gifford Pinchot

    • Utilitarian philosophy of John Stuart Mill

    • Anthropocentric valuing of nature

  • Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic (Aldo Leopold)

    • Equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium


Modern conservation biology
Modern conservation biology現代的科技不僅可挖掘出更多的資源,同時也造成許多的滲漏與浪費,且更是產生許多污染。

  • 1960s-1980s

  • 1985, the society for Conservation Biology,

  • 1987, the first issue of the journal Conservation Biology

  • 其他相關的期刊有:Biological Conservation, the Journal of Wildlife Management, and Conservation in Practice (1999)



Guiding principles for cb
Guiding principles for CB Biology, published in May 1987.

  • Evolution is the basic axiom that unites all of biology (The evolutionary play)

  • The ecological world is dynamic and largely nonequilibrial (the ecological theater)

  • Human presence must be included in conservation planning (Humans are part of the play)


Pervasive
保育生物學的特質 Biology, published in May 1987.(pervasive)

  • A discipline responding to an immense crisis. (無限的危機)

  • A multidisciplinary science

  • An inexact science (不精確的科學)

    • Precautionary principle (禁漏原則)(p.23)

  • A value-laden science (含有價值的科學)

  • A science with an evolutionary time scale

  • A science of eternal vigilance (無休止的警覺性)


  • 自然科學 Biology, published in May 1987.

  • 生物學

  • 生態學

  • 演化學

  • 遺傳學

  • 生物地理學

  • 地理學

  • 化學

  • 醫學

  • 流行病學

  • 統計學

  • 應用數學

  • 保育生物學

  • 物種的經營管理

  • 保護區的設計

  • 生態經濟學

  • 復原生態學

  • 生態保育學

  • 環境倫理學

  • 環境法律學

  • 環境事業

  • 保育旅遊

  • 保育市場

  • 生態藝術

  • 社會科學與人文學

  • 社會學

  • 人類學

  • 經濟學

  • 政策

  • 法律

  • 哲學

  • 企業

  • 旅遊

  • 創造藝術

Fig. 1.9 The interdisciplinary nature of conservation biology merges many traditional fields of natural and social sciences, and the humanities.


問題與討論 Biology, published in May 1987.

http://mail.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/


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