Energy and Living Things. Outline. Energy Sources Solar-Powered Biosphere Photosynthetic Pathways Using Organic Molecules Chemical Composition and Nutrient Requirements Using Inorganic Molecules Energy Limitation Food Density and Animal Functional Response Optimal Foraging Theory.
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Photosynthesis energy (usually from light) … to store in organic molecules
Capture and transfer light energy to chemical bonds
Not a perfect process – some energy is lost - entropy
How Photosynthesis Works energy (usually from light) … to store in organic molecules
Only certain Wavelengths of Light are Used in Photosynthesis energy (usually from light) … to store in organic molecules
Wavelengths most useful in driving photosynthesis energy (usually from light) … to store in organic molecules
Absorption spectra of chlorophylls and carotenoids
Wavelengths not used - reflected
Modifications of Photosynthesis for Dry Climates energy (usually from light) … to store in organic molecules
CO2 enters passively so stomata have to be open for long periods of time
C3 grasses (yellow) dominant in cool temperate – C4 plants don’t compete so well there
C4 grasslands (orange) have evolved in the tropics and warm temperate regions
Producers don’t compete so well there
Classes of Herbivores Oxygen
How do animals respond?
Cecum is site of much bacterial activity, moist fecal pellets enclosed in protein produced
European River Otter: Oxygen
Widest ranging of otters
Diet varies with abundance of prey
Mullerian mimicry: Comimicry Oxygen