ARGUING A POSITION

ARGUING A POSITION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ARGUING A POSITION (cont.). ARGUMENT: IMPLIES FIGHTING, EXPRESSING ANGER.REASONED ARGUMENT: INVOLVES SUPPORTING ONE'S POSITION WITH REASONS.. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.). PUBLIC DEBATE IS ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY.ARGUMENTATION SKILLS ARE ALSO IMPORTANT IN WORKPLACE DECI-SION MAKING.. ARGUING A POSITI

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ARGUING A POSITION

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1. ARGUING A POSITION MULTIPLE PURPOSES: 1. TAKING A POSITION. 2. PRESENTING A REASONED ARGUMENT EXPLAINING & JUSTIFYING ONES POSITION. 3. INFLUENCING OTHERS THINKING.

2. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) ARGUMENT: IMPLIES FIGHTING, EXPRESSING ANGER. REASONED ARGUMENT: INVOLVES SUPPORTING ONES POSITION WITH REASONS.

3. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) PUBLIC DEBATE IS ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY. ARGUMENTATION SKILLS ARE ALSO IMPORTANT IN WORKPLACE DECI-SION MAKING.

4. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) CONTROVERSIAL (I.E., DEBATABLE) ISSUESNO OBVIOUS, UNIVERSAL RIGHT OR WRONG.

5. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES (cont.) MERE INFORMATION WILL NOT RESOLVE THE DEBATE, THOUGH AN INFORMED POSITION IS USUALLY MORE CONVINCING.

6. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES (cont.) ABSOLUTE PROOF CAN NOT BE OFFERED BECAUSE POSITIONS ON ISSUES INVOLVE OPINION & JUDG-MENT.

7. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) BASIS OF REASONED ARGUMENT: COMPELLING REASONS SOUND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE POINTING OUT FLAWS IN OTHERS REASONING

8. REASONED ARGUMENT (cont.) SHARED INTERESTS, VALUES, & PRINCIPLES (COMMON GROUND) COMPROMISE (MODERATING ONES VIEWS, URGING OTHERS TO DO THE SAME)

9. IMPORTANCE OF AUDIENCE NEED TO DETERMINE AUDIENCES POSITION (ARE THEY OPPOSED? UNDECIDED? MORE OR LESS IN AGREEMENT?) . . .

10. AUDIENCE (cont.) . . . AS WELL AS THEIR WAY OF THINKING ABOUT THE ISSUE (E.G., AS A MORAL ISSUE, PERSONAL ISSUE, POLITICAL ISSUE, ETC.).

11. AUDIENCE (cont.) WITH A STRONGLY OPPOSED AUDI-ENCE, THE BEST ONE CAN HOPE FOR IS TO INCREASE READERS UNDER-STANDING OF OR GAIN RESPECT FOR ONES POSITION. MAY HAVE TO SETTLE FOR CLARIFYNG DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POSITIONS.

12. BASIC FEATURES OF POSITION/ ARGUMENT ESSAYS WELL-DEFINED ISSUE SUBJECT IS A MATTER OF DEBATE, CONTROVERSY.

13. WELL-DEFINED ISSUE (cont.) MUST EXPLAIN WHAT THE ISSUE IS, DEFINE WHAT KIND OF ISSUE IT IS, AND ESTABLISH THE BOUNDARIES OF THE ISSUE. SOME ISSUES NEED EXTENSIVE DEFINITION FOR SOME AUDIENCES.

14. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) A CLEAR POSITION OFTEN EXPRESSED IN A THESIS STATE-MENT NEAR BEGINNING OF ESSAY (BUT SOMETIMES APPROPRIATE TO POST-PONE).

15. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) THESISTHE POINT OF VIEW THE WRITER WANTS READERS TO ADOPT.

16. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) B/C FACTS ARE UNARGUABLE, THEY ARE USED TO SUPPORT A THESIS, BUT CAN NOT BE THE THESIS ITSELF.

17. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) EXPRESSIONS OF PERSONAL FEEL-INGS ARE NOT ARGUABLE. THEY CAN BE EXPLAINED, BUT ARE NOT CON-VINCING REASONS FOR OTHERS TO CHANGE THEIR VIEWS.

18. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) CLEAR & EXACT WORDING NEED TO AVOID VAGUENESS (MEANING IS UNCLEAR) & AMBIGUITY (COULD HAVE MORE THAN ONE POSSIBLE MEANING).

19. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) WRITERS POSITION MUST SOMETIMES BE QUALIFIED TO ACCOMMODATE OPPOSING ARGUMENTS & TO SHOW UNDERSTANDING OF AN ISSUES COM-PLEXITY (WHILE AT THE SAME TIME AVOIDING VAGUENESS & INDECISION).

20. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) QUALIFYING ONES ARGUMENT IN-VOLVES USING WORDS LIKE PROBABLY, APPARENTLY, LIKELY, AND SO FORTH; AVOIDING WORDS LIKE OBVIOUSLY, ALWAYS, NEVER, ETC.

21. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) A CONVINCING, WELL-REASONED ARGUMENT MUST PRESENT REASONS FOR ONES POSITION ON THE ISSUE; THEY ARE THE MAIN POINTS THAT ANSWER THE QUESTION WHY DO YOU THINK THAT?

22. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) REASONS MUST BE DIRECTLY STAT-ED & EXPLAINED IN DETAIL. USUAL-LY SEVERAL REASONS ARE OFFERED.

23. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) MUST PROVIDE EVIDENCE TO SUP-PORT ONES REASONS: I.E., FACTS, STATISTICS, EXAMPLES, SCENARIOS, ANECDOTES, TESTIMONY, TEXTUAL EVIDENCE, ETC.

24. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) ANTICIPATING OPPOSING ARGU-MENTS WRITER MUST (1) ACKNOWLEDGE OPPOSING ARGUMENTS, AND THEN (2) GENERALLY EITHER REFUTE OR ACCOMMODATE THEM.

25. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) ACKNOWLEDGING SHOWING AN AWARENESS OF READERS OBJECTIONS & QUESTIONS. SHOWS THAT YOU TAKE OTHERS POINT OF VIEW SERIOUSLY EVEN IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH IT.

26. ACKNOWLEDGING (cont.) SHOWS THAT THE WRITER HAS EX-PLORED THE ISSUE THOROUGHLY, IS THOUGHTFUL & REASONABLE, AND CONCERNED W/ SEEKING THE TRUTH.

27. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) ACCOMMODATING ACCEPTING READERS LEGITIMATE CON-CERNS AND INCORPORATING THEM INTO YOUR OWN ARGUMENT.

28. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) REFUTING SHOWING WHY READERS OBJECTIONS ARE NOT VALID OR THEIR CONCERNS IRRELEVANT AND ARGUING AGAINST THEM IN A REASONABLE, CONSTRUC-TIVE WAY.

29. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) USEFULNESS OF COUNTERARGUING: ENHANCES ONES CREDIBILITY. STRENGTHENS ONES ARGUMENT. REASSURES READERS THAT THEY SHARE IMPORTANT VALUES & ATTITUDES WITH THE WRITER (I.E., HELPS ESTABLISH COMMON GROUND).

30. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) APPROPRIATE TONE EXPRESSES WRITERS FEELINGS W/OUT CLOSING OFF COMMUNICATION. HELPS GAIN READERS CONFIDENCE & RESPECT.

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