ARGUING A POSITION

ARGUING A POSITION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 169 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

ARGUING A POSITION (cont.). ARGUMENT: IMPLIES FIGHTING, EXPRESSING ANGER.REASONED ARGUMENT: INVOLVES SUPPORTING ONE'S POSITION WITH REASONS.. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.). PUBLIC DEBATE IS ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY.ARGUMENTATION SKILLS ARE ALSO IMPORTANT IN WORKPLACE DECI-SION MAKING.. ARGUING A POSITI

Download Presentation

ARGUING A POSITION

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. ARGUING A POSITION MULTIPLE PURPOSES: 1. TAKING A POSITION. 2. PRESENTING A REASONED ARGUMENT EXPLAINING & JUSTIFYING ONE’S POSITION. 3. INFLUENCING OTHERS’ THINKING.

2. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) ARGUMENT: IMPLIES FIGHTING, EXPRESSING ANGER. REASONED ARGUMENT: INVOLVES SUPPORTING ONE’S POSITION WITH REASONS.

3. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) PUBLIC DEBATE IS ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY. ARGUMENTATION SKILLS ARE ALSO IMPORTANT IN WORKPLACE DECI-SION MAKING.

4. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) CONTROVERSIAL (I.E., DEBATABLE) ISSUES—NO OBVIOUS, UNIVERSAL “RIGHT” OR “WRONG.”

5. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES (cont.) MERE INFORMATION WILL NOT RESOLVE THE DEBATE, THOUGH AN INFORMED POSITION IS USUALLY MORE CONVINCING.

6. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES (cont.) ABSOLUTE PROOF CAN NOT BE OFFERED BECAUSE POSITIONS ON ISSUES INVOLVE OPINION & JUDG-MENT.

7. ARGUING A POSITION (cont.) BASIS OF REASONED ARGUMENT: COMPELLING REASONS SOUND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE POINTING OUT FLAWS IN OTHERS’ REASONING

8. REASONED ARGUMENT (cont.) SHARED INTERESTS, VALUES, & PRINCIPLES (“COMMON GROUND”) COMPROMISE (MODERATING ONE’S VIEWS, URGING OTHERS TO DO THE SAME)

9. IMPORTANCE OF AUDIENCE NEED TO DETERMINE AUDIENCE’S POSITION (ARE THEY OPPOSED? UNDECIDED? MORE OR LESS IN AGREEMENT?) . . .

10. AUDIENCE (cont.) . . . AS WELL AS THEIR WAY OF THINKING ABOUT THE ISSUE (E.G., AS A MORAL ISSUE, PERSONAL ISSUE, POLITICAL ISSUE, ETC.).

11. AUDIENCE (cont.) WITH A STRONGLY OPPOSED AUDI-ENCE, THE BEST ONE CAN HOPE FOR IS TO INCREASE READERS’ UNDER-STANDING OF OR GAIN RESPECT FOR ONE’S POSITION. MAY HAVE TO SETTLE FOR CLARIFYNG DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POSITIONS.

12. BASIC FEATURES OF POSITION/ ARGUMENT ESSAYS WELL-DEFINED ISSUE SUBJECT IS A MATTER OF DEBATE, CONTROVERSY.

13. WELL-DEFINED ISSUE (cont.) MUST EXPLAIN WHAT THE ISSUE IS, DEFINE WHAT KIND OF ISSUE IT IS, AND ESTABLISH THE BOUNDARIES OF THE ISSUE. SOME ISSUES NEED EXTENSIVE DEFINITION FOR SOME AUDIENCES.

14. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) A CLEAR POSITION OFTEN EXPRESSED IN A THESIS STATE-MENT NEAR BEGINNING OF ESSAY (BUT SOMETIMES APPROPRIATE TO POST-PONE).

15. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) THESIS—THE POINT OF VIEW THE WRITER WANTS READERS TO ADOPT.

16. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) B/C FACTS ARE UNARGUABLE, THEY ARE USED TO SUPPORT A THESIS, BUT CAN NOT BE THE THESIS ITSELF.

17. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) EXPRESSIONS OF PERSONAL FEEL-INGS ARE NOT ARGUABLE. THEY CAN BE EXPLAINED, BUT ARE NOT CON-VINCING REASONS FOR OTHERS TO CHANGE THEIR VIEWS.

18. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) CLEAR & EXACT WORDING NEED TO AVOID VAGUENESS (MEANING IS UNCLEAR) & AMBIGUITY (COULD HAVE MORE THAN ONE POSSIBLE MEANING).

19. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) WRITER’S POSITION MUST SOMETIMES BE “QUALIFIED” TO ACCOMMODATE OPPOSING ARGUMENTS & TO SHOW UNDERSTANDING OF AN ISSUE’S COM-PLEXITY (WHILE AT THE SAME TIME AVOIDING VAGUENESS & INDECISION).

20. CLEAR POSITION (cont.) QUALIFYING ONE’S ARGUMENT IN-VOLVES USING WORDS LIKE PROBABLY, APPARENTLY, LIKELY, AND SO FORTH; AVOIDING WORDS LIKE OBVIOUSLY, ALWAYS, NEVER, ETC.

21. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) A CONVINCING, WELL-REASONED ARGUMENT MUST PRESENT REASONS FOR ONE’S POSITION ON THE ISSUE; THEY ARE THE MAIN POINTS THAT ANSWER THE QUESTION “WHY DO YOU THINK THAT?”

22. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) REASONS MUST BE DIRECTLY STAT-ED & EXPLAINED IN DETAIL. USUAL-LY SEVERAL REASONS ARE OFFERED.

23. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) MUST PROVIDE EVIDENCE TO SUP-PORT ONE’S REASONS: I.E., FACTS, STATISTICS, EXAMPLES, SCENARIOS, ANECDOTES, TESTIMONY, TEXTUAL EVIDENCE, ETC.

24. CONVINCING ARGUMENT (cont.) ANTICIPATING OPPOSING ARGU-MENTS WRITER MUST (1) ACKNOWLEDGE OPPOSING ARGUMENTS, AND THEN (2) GENERALLY EITHER REFUTE OR ACCOMMODATE THEM.

25. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) ACKNOWLEDGING SHOWING AN AWARENESS OF READERS’ OBJECTIONS & QUESTIONS. SHOWS THAT YOU TAKE OTHERS’ POINT OF VIEW SERIOUSLY EVEN IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH IT.

26. ACKNOWLEDGING (cont.) SHOWS THAT THE WRITER HAS EX-PLORED THE ISSUE THOROUGHLY, IS THOUGHTFUL & REASONABLE, AND CONCERNED W/ SEEKING THE TRUTH.

27. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) ACCOMMODATING ACCEPTING READERS’ LEGITIMATE CON-CERNS AND INCORPORATING THEM INTO YOUR OWN ARGUMENT.

28. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) REFUTING SHOWING WHY READERS’ OBJECTIONS ARE NOT VALID OR THEIR CONCERNS IRRELEVANT AND ARGUING AGAINST THEM IN A REASONABLE, CONSTRUC-TIVE WAY.

29. COUNTERARGUING (cont.) USEFULNESS OF COUNTERARGUING: ENHANCES ONE’S CREDIBILITY. STRENGTHENS ONE’S ARGUMENT. REASSURES READERS THAT THEY SHARE IMPORTANT VALUES & ATTITUDES WITH THE WRITER (I.E., HELPS ESTABLISH COMMON GROUND).

30. POSITION PAPER FEATURES (cont.) APPROPRIATE TONE EXPRESSES WRITER’S FEELINGS W/OUT CLOSING OFF COMMUNICATION. HELPS GAIN READER’S CONFIDENCE & RESPECT.

  • Login