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Reporting Category 2 Mechanisms of Genetics. Station 8. Changes to the Genetic Code. Essential Question-Bell Ringer.

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Presentation Transcript
Station 8

Reporting Category 2

Mechanisms of Genetics

Station 8

Changes to the Genetic Code


Essential question bell ringer
Essential Question-Bell Ringer

Humans have approximately 75,000 to 100,000 genes in a typical cell. A single gene contains about 10,000 nitrogen base pairs. How is it possible for a single mutation to one of these base pairs to cause a life-threatening condition?

Journal


Essential Question answer:

Nitrogen base combinations code for amino acids, which produce proteins. If a mutation to one of the base pairs affected a protein that was vital to the functioning of a crucial organ or system, this mutation would cause the organ or system to fail.

Journal


Pre review question
Pre-Review Question

During the process of protein synthesis, a section of the DNA molecule is copied into which other molecule?

  • Nucleic acid

  • Cytoplasmic DNA

  • Messenger RNA

  • Transfer RNA


Pre review question1
Pre-Review Question

In messenger RNA, each codon specifies a particular:

  • Nucleotide

  • Purine

  • Amino acid

  • Pyrimidine


Pre review question2
Pre-Review Question

True or False

Any change in the genetic sequence (DNA) that affects the genetic information is referred to as a mutation.

True


Pre review question3
Pre-Review Question

Type of mutation that takes place when a base codon is changed but both code for the same amino acid:

  • Silent mutation

  • Transition mutation

  • Transversion

  • Deletion


Lab activities
Lab Activities

You will now go to the lab and complete the activities for todays topics…



1 using the mrna genetic code chart determine the name of the amino acid each codon represents
1. Using the mRNA Genetic Code chart, determine the name of the amino acid each codon represents.

Write and answer the question in your journal (Include the DNA sequences)

  • AUG CCA ACA GUG AGA UUA CAG AAA UCG UAA

Start, proline, theorine, valine, arganine, leucine, glutamine, lysine, serine, stop.

This will serve as your original strand.

2. What does this chain of amino acids represent?

A polypeptide chain or a protein strand.


3. Some genetic mutations are caused by changes in the bases of some codons. Compare the two sequences below and compare them to the original sequence. Can you identify which codon was changed and what the new amino acid will be?

Write and answer the question in your journal (Include the DNA sequences)

  • AUG CCA ACA GCG AGA UUA CAG AAA UCG UAA

  • AUG CCA ACA GUG AGA UUG CAG AAA UCG UAA


Answer bases of some codons. Compare the two sequences below and compare them to the original sequence. Can you identify which codon was changed and what the new amino acid will be?

  • AUG CCA ACA GCG AGA UUA CAG AAA UCG UAA

    Uracil has been replaced with cytosine

    This will change the amino acid from valine to alanine.

  • AUG CCA ACA GUG AGA UUG CAG AAA UCG UAA

    Alanine has been replaced with guanine.

    However, this still codes for the same amino acide.

    This is known as a silent mutation.


Write and answer the question in your journal (Include the DNA sequences)

4. If an additional base is added it it called a frameshift. Compare the original strand to the strand below and find the insertion. How many amino acids would be affected?

AUG CCA ACA UGU GAG AUU ACA GAA AUC GUA A


Write and answer the question in your journal (Include the DNA sequences)

4. If an additional base is added it it called a frameshift. Compare the original strand to the strand below and find the insertion. How many amino acids would be affected?

AUG CCA ACA UGU GAG AUU ACA GAA AUC GUA A

Start, proline, theorine, cysteine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, threonine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, valine, nothing.


5. What is the significance of this frame-shift mutation for the structure of the protein?

After the mutation, 7 of the 10 codons now code for a different amino acid than the original sequence did. In addition, a single adenine (A) base ends the strand. This frame-shift mutation will cause massive changes in the types of protein produced by the new strand.


What i need to remember
What I need to remember…. the structure of the protein?

• Mutations are changes in DNA that can be

inherited.

• Certain codons are responsible for starting the

production of a protein, and other codons stop the

process.

• Mutations occur when bases are added or deleted

and when segments of DNA are missing.

• Not all mutations are harmful—some are very

beneficial.


Post review question
Post Review Question the structure of the protein?

What type of point mutation is illustrated in the table below?

  • Substitution

  • Silent

  • Deletion

  • Insertion


Post review question1
Post Review Question the structure of the protein?

Identify the following mutation:

  • Translocation

  • Deletion

  • Inversion

  • Duplication


Post review question2
Post Review Question the structure of the protein?

Identify the following mutation:

  • Translocation

  • Deletion

  • Inversion

  • Duplication


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