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CURRICULUM / INSTRUCTION / ASSESSMENT. C/I/A- 1. DATA. DATA. DATA. DATA. DATA. Instructional Leadership Development Framework for Data-driven Systems. CULTURE. Learner-Centered. High Expectations. Curriculum/Instruction/ Assessment. Organizational Management. Supervision. QUALITY

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CURRICULUM / INSTRUCTION /

ASSESSMENT

C/I/A-1


DATA

DATA

DATA

DATA

DATA

Instructional Leadership Development Frameworkfor Data-driven Systems

CULTURE

Learner-Centered

High Expectations

Curriculum/Instruction/

Assessment

Organizational

Management

Supervision

QUALITY

STUDENT

PERFORMANCE

Communication and Community Partnerships

Professional

Development

Collaborative

Continuous Improvement

ETHICS AND INTEGRITY

C/I/A-2


Lone Star Middle School Data Review

• Review and analyze the additional data on pages 18 through 21.

• Discuss at your table what the data indicates.

C/I/A-3


Lone star middle school site based decision making committee

• Observe a meeting of the facilitator presenting assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

• Record some observations from the video.

Lone Star Middle School Site-Based Decision-Making Committee

C/I/A-4


Lone Star Middle School Data Review assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

• Review and analyze the additional data on pages 9 and 14.

• Discuss at your table what the data indicates.

C/I/A-5


Lone Star Middle School assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

Social Studies Department Meeting

  • Observe a meeting of the social studies department as performance data is discussed.

  • Jot down some of your observations.

C/I/A-6


Continuous Improvement Process assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

  • Needs Assessment

  • Data collection

  • Analysis

Goals &

Objectives

Summative

Evaluation

Quality

Ongoing

Formative

Evaluation

Strategies &

Activities

Student

Performance

  • Implementation

  • Who?

  • What?

  • What do we need?

Professional

Development & Sustained Support

C/I/A-7


Continuous Improvement Planning Process assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

Data Sources for Data-driven Decision-making

Quality

Student

Performance

Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment

Supervision

Professional Development

Communication and Community Partnerships

Organizational Management

C/I/A-8


Premises assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

  • Curriculum, instruction and assessment must be learner-centered and aligned to be effective.

  • Ensuring that all Texas students master the state-adopted curriculum is a critical teaching responsibility.

C/I/A-9


Objectives assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.

• The participant will be able to:

• Use multiple data sources to analyze and make decisions about curriculum, instruction, and assessment to support continuous improvement

• Develop an understanding of learner-centered curriculum, instruction, and assessment and be able to articulate it

C/I/A-10


Recognize learner centered instructional decisions that address four critical elements

Objectives assessment data to the site-based decision-making team.(continued)

• Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

• Varied Needs and Characteristics of All Levels

• Assessing Student Progress

• Alignment of Learning Objectives

• Recognize learner-centered instructional decisions that address four critical elements:

  • • Develop an awareness of multiple instructional strategies to meet the various needs of all learners

C/I/A-11



Instruction: How elements.

(lesson attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district,

campus, teacher)

Quality

Student Performance

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, campus, teacher)

C/I/A-13


A Shift in Teaching and Learning elements.

The Texas Perspective

• Working at your table and using the items in the envelope marked, “The Texas Perspective on the Shift in Teaching and Learning,” categorize the items under the headings DECREASE and INCREASE.

• Be prepared to discuss as a whole group.

C/I/A-14


A shift in teaching and learning

Decrease elements.

• Isolation

• Learning is other-directed

• Sort and select students

• Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic

• A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails

• Whole-class instruction dominates

• Tests for pieces of learning

• Learning bits of information

• Time driven

• A single form of assessment

• Assessment most common at end of learning

Increase

• Collaboration and communication

• Learning is self-directed

• All students will learn

• Student differences are studied as a basis for planning

• A focus on multiple forms of intelligences is evident

• Many instructional arrangements are used

• Assess for continuous improvement

• Learning is relevant and connected to life and other disciplines

• Results driven

• Multiple forms of assessment are used

• Assessment ongoing and diagnostic

A Shift in Teaching and Learning

Texas Perspective on the Shift in Teaching and Learning

—Adapted from various Texas Education Agency documents

C/I/A-15


3-2-1 Strategy elements.

1) Recall your “special student.”

2) Select 3 practices that you feel would positively impact your student.

3) Discuss 2 of the practices with a partner.

4) Highlight the 1 practice that you feel would have the potential for the most positive impact on your student.

C/I/A-16


Lesson Attributes elements.

  • Objectives and Goals

  • Engagement and Motivation

  • Connections and Relevance

  • Questioning and Inquiry

  • Feedback and Reinforcement

  • Monitoring and Assessment

  • Application

C/I/A-17


Lesson Attributes elements.

Objectives and Goals

The teacher knows what he/she wants the students to know and be able to do at the end of the lesson. Objectives are clear, specific, and include basic knowledge/skills and central themes/concepts of the discipline.

C/I/A-18


Lesson Attributes elements.

Engagement and Motivation

Research makes it clear that all information taken into the brain must first pass an “attentional” threshold. The student must be engaged and interested in the new learning in order to be self-directed/intrinsically motivated and successful in learning.

C/I/A-19


Lesson Attributes elements.

Connections and Relevance

New learning must build on prior knowledge, the “hook” on which to hang the new. Teachers will be most successful when they can connect new information to prior knowledge and to various disciplines, as well as make the learning relevant to the lives and interests of the learners.

C/I/A-20


Lesson Attributes elements.

Questioning and Inquiry

The key to “minds-on” learning and a strong check for understanding is effective questioning and inquiry, both by the teacher and by the student. Instruction should be student-focused, inquiry-based, and directed to students as thinkers and problem solvers.

C/I/A-21


Lesson Attributes elements.

Feedback and Reinforcement

Timely, specific, quality feedback helps students understand why they are successful or unsuccessful in learning and results in a higher level and frequency of student commitment to the learning. Students are then able to repeat their effort and succeed or make adjustments in order to be more successful.

Reinforcing prior learning helps students retain knowledge and extend learning as they apply skills in multiple contexts.

C/I/A-22


Lesson Attributes elements.

Monitoring and Assessment

Effective monitoring enables the teacher to have a conscious awareness of where each student is in relation to the learning objective.

Formative and summative assessment takes place during and after the teaching of the lesson objective to provide data regarding mastery of the learning to both the teacher and the student.

C/I/A-23


Lesson Attributes elements.

Application

Brain research supports the opportunity for students to apply new learning, thus making stronger connections and driving the knowledge into long-term memory. Many of the TEKS/TAKS skills require the application of learning.

C/I/A-24


engagement/ elements.

motivation

feedback/

reinforcement

questioning/

inquiry

application

connections/

relevance

monitoring/

assessment

objectives/

goals

Lesson Attributes

C/I/A-25


Shift in teaching and learning activity

View a video clip of Cheryl, an eighth-grade social studies teacher, and record your observations.

Discuss at your table the behaviors you observed.

Shift in Teaching and Learning Activity

C/I/A-26


Teacher student behaviors
Teacher/Student Behaviors teacher, and record your observations.

Cheryl

Kelley

Teacher Behaviors:

Teacher Behaviors:

Student Behaviors:

Student Behaviors:

C/I/A-27


Shift in Teaching and Learning Activity teacher, and record your observations.

View the video clip of Kelley, another eighth-grade social studies teacher, and record your observations.

Discuss at your table what behaviors you observed.

C/I/A-28


Teacher student behaviors1
Teacher/Student Behaviors teacher, and record your observations.

Cheryl

Kelley

Teacher Behaviors:

Teacher Behaviors:

Student Behaviors:

Student Behaviors:

C/I/A-29


Four critical elements of curriculum instruction and assessment

• Thinking at high cognitive levels and making connections within and across disciplines

• Addressing the varied needs and characteristics of all learners

• Assessing student progress

• Alignment of learning objectives

Four Critical Elements of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

C/I/A-30


Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment within and across disciplines

Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

Instruction: How

(instructional attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district,

campus, teacher)

Quality

Student

Performance

Addressing the Varied Needs and

Characteristics of All Learners

Alignment of Learning Objectives

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, teacher)

Assessing Student Progress

C/I/A-31


Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment within and across disciplines

Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

Instruction: How

(instructional attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district, campus, teacher)

Quality

Student

Performance

Addressing the Varied Needs and

Characteristics of All Learners

Alignment of Learning Objectives

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, teacher)

Assessing Student Progress

C/I/A-32


Bloom’s Taxonomy within and across disciplines

• On a separate sheet of paper, list the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy in order from least to most difficult.

• Write a brief definition for each level.

• Compare with a partner.

• Compare your work with another pair.

C/I/A-33


Bloom’s Taxonomy within and across disciplines

Level

Definition

C/I/A-34


Original Terms New Terms within and across disciplines

  • Evaluation

  • Synthesis

  • Analysis

  • Application

  • Comprehension

  • Knowledge

  • Creating

  • Evaluating

  • Analyzing

  • Applying

  • Understanding

  • Remembering

(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)

C/I/A-35


Change in Terms within and across disciplines

  • The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms.

  • As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate.

  • The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs

  • Some subcategories were reorganized.

  • The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.

  • Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.

(http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003; Pohl, 2000, p. 8)

C/I/A-36


Change in Emphasis within and across disciplines

  • More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment.

  • Aimed at a broader audience.

  • Easily applied to all levels of schooling.

  • The revision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategories.

(http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003; Pohl, 2000, p. 10)

C/I/A-37


Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy within and across disciplines

CreatingGenerating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing thingsDesigning, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.EvaluatingJustifying a decision or course of actionChecking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judgingAnalyzingBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationshipsComparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, findingApplyingUsing information in another familiar situationImplementing, carrying out, using, executingUnderstandingExplaining ideas or conceptsInterpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, explainingRememberingRecalling informationRecognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding

Higher-order thinking

C/I/A-38


Development of State Curriculum within and across disciplines

TEKS

(SS–Gr. 4)

Analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto.

(SS–Middle)

Analyze causes of the American Revolution, including mercantilism and British economic policies following the French and Indian War.

(SS–High)

Evaluate the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system and explain why this new form of federalism was adopted instead of a unitary system.

C/I/A-39


Bloom’s Taxonomy and TAKS/TEKS Activity within and across disciplines

  • In pairs and using the TAKS/TEKS document, H-C/I/A-16, identify the level of Bloom’s taxonomy of the TAKS and TEKS.

  • Discuss with your table group.

C/I/A-40


Structure of Knowledge within and across disciplines

Theory

Principle

Generalization

Concepts

Concepts

Topic

Topic

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

FACTS

—H. Lynn Erickson

—Adapted from Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-41


Examining the Structure of Knowledge within and across disciplines

Theory: Is a conceptual idea that is yet to be proven.

Principle: A form of generalization, but is a truth that holds consistently through time.

Generalization: Connection/relatedness of two or more concepts.

Concept: An organizing idea, represented by one or two words. Examples have common attributes.

Topic: A category of study with a body of related facts to be learned.

Fact: A statement of truth.

—H. Lynn Erickson

—Adapted from Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-42


Examining the Structure of Knowledge, Continued within and across disciplines

EXAMPLE

LEVEL

Migration is a psychologically-driven response to meet an internal need.

Theory

Principle/Generalization

People migrate to meet a variety of needs. Migration may lead to new opportunities or greater freedom.

• migration• needs• opportunity• freedom

Concept

Topic

Westward Movement

Early American settlers migrated west. Early American settlers looked for new opportunities.

Fact

-from H. Lynn Erickson

C/I/A-43


8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge within and across disciplines

8.2 (a–d) The student selects and uses appropriate operations to solve problems and justify solutions.

TEKS

Theory

People use formal and informal reasoning to solve problems.

Generalization

Reasonable solutions can be justified.

ReasonablenessSolutionsRelationshipsJustification

Concept

Topic

Number operations

Addition and multiplication are additive properties. Multiplication by a constant factor can be used to represent proportional relationships (e.g., a=1.4x).

Fact

C/I/A-44


8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge within and across disciplines

  • Locate the envelope on your table labeled “8th Grade Mathematics TEKS.”

  • Place the two additional examples of the 8th grade mathematics TEKS into the blank columns by sorting them according to the Structure of Knowledge.

C/I/A-45


8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge within and across disciplines

8.3 (a–b) The student identifies proportional relationships in problem situations and solves problems.

8.5 (a–b) The student makes connections among various representations of a numerical relationship.

TEKS

Patterns show relationships that can be used to make predictions.

Patterns show relationships that can be used to make predictions.

Generalization

Representations

Solutions

Sequence

Relationships

Relationships

Patterns

Concepts

Topics

Algebraic Expressions

Percents

Algebraic equations represent proportion relationships. Tables and graphs may represent algebraic expression.

In proportional relationships: when one variable changes the other variable changes to the same degree in the same way.

Facts

C/I/A-46


Structure of Knowledge Across the Core Content Areas within and across disciplines

  • Locate the envelope labeled “Structure of Knowledge Across the Content Areas.”

  • Using the contents of the envelope, determine the facts, topics, concepts and generalizations for each of the following TEKS: Social Studies 8.24 (a-e) Science 8.6 Language Arts 8.12 (a, c, f, g, h, j)

C/I/A-47


Structure of Knowledge Across the Core Content Areas within and across disciplines

SS 8.6 (Biology 12)

SS 8.24 (a-e)

TEKS

ELA 8.12

• Similarities and differences between and among people influence relationships.

• Differences between and among people can create conflict.

• There is a relationship of mutual influence between organisms and their environment.

• Interdependence occurs among living systems.

• Forms of written texts have distinguishing characteristics.

• Different types of texts serve different purposes.

Principle/

Generalization

Influence

Relationships

Conflict

Patterns

Influence

Relationships

Systems

Interdependence

Conflict

Relationships

Change

Concepts

Conflict in American Society

Ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere

American Literature During the Civil War

Topics

• Organisms are organized into species.

• Organisms depend on unique resources to survive.

• Species vary from ecosystem to ecosystem.

• Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was a novel written to influence public opinion concerning slavery.

• Proponents of states’ rights and abolitionists both used written texts to explain their views and influence public opinion.

• Conflict between white settlers and Native Americans led to forced migration of the American natives.

Facts

C/I/A-48


Structure of Knowledge and within and across disciplinesTEKS/TAKS Activity

  • In pairs and using the Social Studies TEKS/TAKS document, identify the level of complexity for 8.1 and 8.24 using the Structure of Knowledge.

  • Discuss with your table group.

C/I/A-49


Using the Analysis Tool within and across disciplines

  • Locate one copy of the Analysis Tool handout in the participant notebook.

  • Find the red dots in your table materials.

  • Based on your analysis of the TEKS and TAKS objectives, place a red dot on the Analysis Tool grid for TEKS statement 8.1 and 8.24.

C/I/A-50


Level of complexity
Level of Complexity within and across disciplines

Creating

Evaluating

(8.24)

(8.1)

Level of Difficulty

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Remembering

Facts

Topics

Concepts

Generalizations/

Principles

Analysis Tool: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-51


Continuous Improvement in State-level Curriculum and Assessment

Curriculum

Assessment

Instruction

?

State Adopted

State Adopted

C/I/A-52


The Structure of Knowledge: Classroom Application Assessment

  • Locate the two examples of classroom social studies units (H-C/I/A-25–26; H-C/I/A-27–30).

  • After reviewing the two examples, identify the level of difficulty and level of complexity of the units and place a blue dot for each on the Analysis Tool handout.

C/I/A-53


Level of complexity1
Level of Complexity Assessment

Creating

Evaluating

Level of Difficulty

(B)

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

(A)

Remembering

Facts

Topics

Concepts

Generalizations/

Principles

Analysis Tool: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-54


Data Collection Activity Assessment

Review the case study of Cheryl pp. 22-42 and the case study of Kelley on pp. 43-60 in the data packet.

Record some of your observations on the data collection charts.

Share your observations with a partner.

C/I/A-55


Data Collection Charts Assessment

Cheryl

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-56


Data Collection Charts Assessment

Kelley

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-57


Video Activity Assessment

• View the videotape of Cheryl and Kelley and review the case studies.

• Determine the level of difficulty and level of complexity of the various classroom assignments, sample tests, and lesson plans.

C/I/A-58


Level of complexity2
Level of Complexity Assessment

Creating

Evaluating

(Cheryl)

Level of Difficulty

Analyzing

Applying

(Kelley)

Understanding

Remembering

Facts

Topics

Concepts

Generalizations/

Principles

Analysis Tool: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-59



CIA as It Relates to Me elements.

My Responsibility

Implications

• What are the implications of thinking at high cognitive levels and making connections for my campus?

• What is my responsibility as an instructional leader in this area?

High Cognitive

C/I/A-61


Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment elements.

Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

Instruction: How

(instructional attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district, campus, teacher)

Quality

Student

Performance

Addressing the Varied Needs and

Characteristics of All Learners

Alignment of Learning Objectives

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, teacher)

Assessing Student Progress

C/I/A-62


“That students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.” —Theodore Sizer—Horace’s Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School. 1984

C/I/A-63


Looking with New Eyes inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

What are some characteristics of approaching student needs with a focus on weaknesses?

What are some characteristics of approaching student needs with a focus on strengths?

What are the implications of addressing student needs from each vantage point?

C/I/A-64


Varied Needs and Characteristics of ALL Learners inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Identifying Needs and Characteristics

Addressing Needs and Characteristics

C/I/A-65


Special Student Activity inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

• Identify the needs and characteristics of your special student, with one item per sticky note.

• As a table group, discuss the needs of your special students.

C/I/A-66


Varied Needs and Characteristics of ALL Learners inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Identifying Needs and Characteristics

Academic/

Learning

Social/

Emotional

Physiological

Addressing Needs and Characteristics

C/I/A-67


Special Student Activity inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

• Cluster the identified student needs and characteristics by commonalities.

• Review the work of the other table groups.

C/I/A-68


Varied Needs and Characteristics of ALL Learners inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Identifying Needs and Characteristics

Academic/

Learning

Social/

Emotional

Physiological

Addressing Needs and Characteristics

Content

Process

Product

Through a range of classroom and management strategies

Through a range of support services

C/I/A-69


What Is Meant by Differentiation? inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Differentiation of instruction is a way of thinking about teaching and learning that advocates beginning where individuals are rather than following a prescribed plan of action.

It is a teacher reacting responsively to a learner’s needs.

“The teacher does not try to differentiate everything for everyone every day. That’s impossible, and it would destroy a sense of wholeness in the class.”

Adapted from Tomlinson

C/I/A-70


Ways to Differentiate? inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

  • Content

  • Process

  • Product

C/I/A-71


Importance of Serving Varied Learners inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

“Without large numbers of classrooms where teachers are skilled in meeting varied learners where they are and moving them ahead briskly and with understanding, the number of frustrated and disenfranchised learners in our schools can only multiply.”

—Tomlinson and Allan

—Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms

C/I/A-72


Varied Needs and Characteristics of ALL Learners inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Identifying Needs and Characteristics

Academic/

Learning

Social/

Emotional

Physiological

Addressing Needs and Characteristics

Content

Process

Product

Through a range of instructional strategies

  • 4-Mat

  • 5E Model of Instruction

  • Centers

  • Choice Boards

  • Compacting

  • Contracts

  • Cooperative Learning

  • Flexible Grouping

  • Group Investigation

  • Independent Study

  • Jigsaw

  • Learning Contract

  • Mentorships/Apprenticeships

  • Portfolios

  • Problem Based Learning

  • Stations

  • Tiered Activities

  • Varied Questions

Through a range of support services

  • Mentors

  • Content mastery

  • Co-teachers

  • Helping teachers

  • Instructional specialists

C/I/A-73


Meeting the Needs of inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Your

Special Student

  • Place the name of your special student on a sticky note.

  • Using the chart, select one of the classroom strategies that you feel would help to meet your student’s needs and characteristics.

C/I/A-74


Data Collection Charts inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Cheryl

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-75


Data Collection Charts inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

Kelley

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-76


Video Activity inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students.”

• Review the case studies for Cheryl and Kelley using this critical element as a filter.

• View the video clips of Cheryl and Kelley.

• Record your observations.

C/I/A-77



CIA as It Relates to Me elements.

• What are the implications of addressing varied needs and characteristics for various systems, including my campus?

• What is my responsibility as an instructional leader in this area?

My Responsibility

Implications

High Cognitive

Addressing Needs

C/I/A-79


Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment elements.

Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

Instruction: How

(instructional attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district, campus, teacher)

Quality

Student

Performance

Addressing the Varied Needs and

Characteristics of All Learners

Alignment of Learning Objectives

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, teacher)

Assessing Student Progress

C/I/A-80


Seeing the Connection elements.

Assessment of Student Progress is an integral and essential part of the Continuous Improvement Process.

C/I/A-81


Development of the State Assessment System elements.

TAKS

2003

TAAS

1990

Inclusion of Students and of Subjects Tested

TEAMS

1982

TABS

1980

Level of Difficulty

C/I/A-82


Continuous Improvement Process elements.

  • Needs Assessment

  • Data collection

  • Analysis

Goals &

Objectives

Summative

Evaluation

Quality

Ongoing

Formative

Evaluation

Strategies &

Activities

Student

Performance

  • Implementation

  • Who?

  • What?

  • What do we need?

Professional

Development & Sustained Support

C/I/A-83


Role of Assessment elements.

“Assessment isn’t something that comes at the end of a unit to find out what students learned; rather it is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.”

“Assessment always has more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.”

—Tomlinson (1999)

—The Differentiated Classroom

C/I/A-84


When developing or selecting assessments: elements.

• Identify the PURPOSE,

and then

• Identify the METHOD.

C/I/A-85


Assessing Student Progress elements.

  • Formative assessment:

  • Summative assessment:

C/I/A-86


Types of Classroom Assessments elements.

  • Brainstorm examples of classroom assessments that teachers can use.

  • Indicate if they are formative or summative.

  • If the assessment is formative, how will it impact instruction?

C/I/A-87


Assessment Implementation elements.

How do instructional leaders ensure appropriate, effective use of formative and

summative assessments?

C/I/A-88


Begin with the End in Mind elements.

Thinking First as an Assessor

Thinking Then as a Designer

  • Based on the state assessment, what are the students needing to learn and at what level?

  • How will I differentiate to meet varied needs and characteristics?

  • What performance tasks will best support learning and focus the instructional work?

  • What would be the evidence of student learning?

  • Against what criteria will I evaluate the work?

  • How will I be able to distinguish between those who really understand and those who don’t?

  • What misunderstandings are likely? How will I check for those?

  • What would be interesting and revealing activities to help assure this learning?

  • What resources and materials are available?

  • What will students be doing in and out of class? What assignments will be given?

  • How will students earn a grade (and can it be justified to their parents)?

  • Did the activities work? Why or why not?

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design

C/I/A-89


Assessment and Planning elements.

How will teachers make the shift

from thinking as a designer to

thinking as an assessor?

C/I/A-90


Assessing Student Progress Activity elements.

• Examine each teacher’s lesson plan, assessments, and associated TEKS.

Kelley: Lesson Plan, p. 50

Assessment, pp. 52-53

TEKS 8.8(b)

Cheryl: Lesson Plan, p. 30

Assessment, p. 32

TEKS 8.8(c)

• Look at the relationship between the purpose and method of assessment.

• Record your observations on the data collection sheets.

C/I/A-91


Data Collection Charts elements.

Cheryl

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-92


Data Collection Charts elements.

Kelley

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-93


Level of complexity3
Level of Complexity elements.

Cheryl’s Formative

Creating

Cheryl’s Summative

Evaluating

Kelley’s Summative

Level of Difficulty

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Kelley’s Formative

Remembering

Facts

Topics

Concepts

Generalizations/

Principles

Analysis Tool: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-94



CIA as It Relates to Me elements.

My Responsibility

Implications

• What are the implications of assessing student progress for various systems, including my campus?

• What is my responsibility as an instructional leader in this area?

High Cognitive

Addressing Needs

Assessing

C/I/A-96


Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment elements.

Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections

Instruction: How

(instructional attributes, designs, strategies)

Curriculum: What

(state, district, campus, teacher)

Quality

Student

Performance

Addressing the Varied Needs and

Characteristics of All Learners

Alignment of Learning Objectives

Assessment: To what extent

(state, district, teacher)

Assessing Student Progress

C/I/A-97


District elements.

Campus/

Classroom

Curriculum Alignment

State

Quality Student Performance

C/I/A-98


Continuous Improvement elements.

“…continuous and systematic improvement results when all the aspects of the system are aligned with the goal of enhancing student performance.”

—Peter Senge

—The Fifth Discipline

C/I/A-99


C elements.

I

A

AlignmentFenwick English

C

C / I / A

I

A

C/I/A-100


Doctrine of No Surprises elements.

“Deep alignment is a comprehensive approach to teaching and learning that goes beyond any single measure of the curriculum taught or learned. . .is based on what we call the doctrine of no surprises, that is, children will not be taken by surprise with any form of assessment because alignment is an integral part of the instructional program, not an add on.”

—Fenwick English

—Deep Curriculum Alignment

C/I/A-101


Alignment Activity elements.

  • Examine Cheryl’s and Kelley’s lesson plans, homework assignments, and assessments.

    • Cheryl: p. 30-36

    • Kelley: p. 50-59

  • Refer to handout p. H-C/I/A-48 for the TEKS and TAKS.

  • Cheryl: 8.8 (b,c) and 8.30 (d,e)

  • Kelley: 8.8 (b)

  • Plot the level of curriculum/instruction/assessment for each teacher (red/green/blue) using an analysis for each.

C/I/A-102


Creating elements.

Evaluating

Level of Difficulty

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Remembering

Facts

Topics

Concepts

Generalizations/

Principles

Level of Complexity

Analysis Tool: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge

C/I/A-103


Data Collection Charts elements.

Cheryl

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-104


Data Collection Charts elements.

Kelley

Critical

Element

Evidence

Implications

Thinking at

High Cognitive

Levels

Addressing

Varied

Needs

Assessing

Student

Progress

Alignment of

Learning

Objectives

Potential Professional Development:

C/I/A-105


“Curriculum and assessment alignment is a moral issue. If the adults don’t do what needs to be done … the consequences of their negligence fall most heavily on those students who are most dependent on the school as their source of academic learning—namely the children of the poor.”

—Lawrence Lezotte

—Learning for All

C/I/A-106


Seeing the Connections: Alignment the adults don’t do what needs to be done … the consequences of their negligence fall most heavily on those students who are most dependent on the school as their source of academic learning—namely the children of the poor.”

  • Think about the first three critical elements we have discussed.

  • What do you think is the relationship of alignment to the other three elements in C/I/A?

  • What evidence do you see of these relationships?

C/I/A-107



CIA as It Relates to Me elements.

My Responsibility

Implications

• What are the implications of what we have discussed in alignment for state, district, and campus?

• What is my responsibility as an instructional leader in this area?

High Cognitive

Addressing Needs

Assessing

Alignment

C/I/A-109


Continuous Improvement Planning Process elements.

Data Sources for Data-driven Decision-making

Quality

Student

Performance

Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment

Supervision

Professional Development

Communication and Community Partnerships

Organizational Management

C/I/A-110


Self-Assessment/Reflection elements.

  • Based on the Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment component, what additional knowledge and skills do you need for continuous improvement?

C/I/A-111


DATA elements.

DATA

DATA

DATA

DATA

Instructional Leadership Development Frameworkfor Data-driven Systems

CULTURE

Learner-Centered

High Expectations

Curriculum/Instruction/

Assessment

Organizational

Management

Supervision

QUALITY

STUDENT

PERFORMANCE

Communication and Community Partnerships

Professional

Development

Collaborative

Continuous Improvement

ETHICS AND INTEGRITY

C/I/A-112


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