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COLOR. THE PAINTER’S ELEMENT. SPECTRUM. Color is a property of white light. When light rays are bent by a prism or raindrop, the white light separates into the visible spectrum. COLOR WHEEL. Artists rotate the spectrum into a color wheel.

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Color

COLOR

THE PAINTER’S ELEMENT


Spectrum

SPECTRUM

Color is a property of white light. When light rays are bent by a prism or raindrop, the white light separates into the visible spectrum.


Color wheel

COLOR WHEEL

  • Artists rotate the spectrum into a color wheel.

  • The color wheel allows artists to see the relationships between colors.

  • They use it to plan how to mix specific colors.

  • They also use it to plan color schemes for their paintings.


Color

HUE

The name of a color from the spectrum:

GREEN

ORANGE

YELLOW

RED

BLUE

VIOLET


Primary colors

PRIMARY COLORS

  • These three colors are primary.

  • They cannot be mixed from other colors; they must be bought.

  • They can, however, be used to mix all other colors, but white and black.


Secondary colors

SECONDARY COLORS

Secondary colors are made by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors. The secondaries are located between the two primaries used to make themon the color wheel.


Intermediate colors

INTERMEDIATE COLORS

On the color wheel, there are more colors located between the primaries and secondaries. These colors are called Intermediates or Tertiaries. They are made by mixing a primary and one of the secondaries made from it. The Intermediate is located between the two colors used to make it.


Value in color

VALUE IN COLOR

  • Value is the property of light and dark with the in-between tones.

  • Tints are light values of a color.

  • Shades are dark values of a color.

  • Tints in watercolor are created by adding water.

  • Tints in other paints are made by mixing color to white.

  • It takes little color to change white.

  • Shades in all paints are made by mixing black to color.

  • It takes little black to change color.


Intensity

INTENSITY

  • Intensity of color refers to the brightness (saturation) or dullness of a color.

  • Color intensities are changed by adding the complementary, or opposite, color.

  • Complementary colors are located across the center of the color wheel from a color.

  • Green is the complement of red.

  • Violet is the complement of yellow.

  • Orange is the complement of blue.

  • Colors in nature are dull colors.


Color schemes

COLOR SCHEMES

  • Artists select limited groups of colors, or color schemes, to create emotional impact.

  • These colors schemes include: monochromatic, complementary, analogous, triadic, warm and cool.


Monochromatic

MONOCHROMATIC

  • Monochromatic colors are those of the one hue, and its tints, shades, and dullnesses.

  • Mono = one in Greek.

  • Chroma = color in Greek.


More monochromatics

MORE MONOCHROMATICS


Complementary

COMPLEMENTARY

  • Colors which are located across the color wheel from one another are complementary.

  • These colors seem to vibrate and are extremely vibrant when placed next to each other.

  • When mixed, these colors dull each other.

  • Their contrast creates excitement and tension.


More complementary color schemes

MORE COMPLEMENTARY COLOR SCHEMES


Analogous

ANALOGOUS

  • Analogous colors are a group of colors located side-by-side on the color wheel.

  • An analogous color scheme includes one or two primaries, one or two secondaries, and two or more intermediates.

  • Analogous works are peaceful and happy.


More analogous color schemes

MORE ANALOGOUS COLOR SCHEMES


Color triads

COLOR TRIADS

  • Color triads are colors equidistant on the color wheel.

  • They are found easily by placing an equilateral triangle over the wheel. The colors touched by the corners of the triangle are triadic.

  • They have high contrast and create excitement.


More triadics

MORE TRIADICS


Warm colors

WARM COLORS

  • Colors which remind us of fire, the sun and deserts are called warm colors.

  • These colors are analogous and sit on the color wheel from red-violet to yellow, and include reds, oranges and yellows.

  • They are exciting colors that seem to come toward the viewer.


More warm color schemes

MORE WARM COLOR SCHEMES


Cool colors

COOL COLORS

  • Cool colors remind us of mountains, sky, water and ice.

  • They seem to move away from the viewer and are calm.

  • They sit on the color wheel from yellow-green to violet, and include blues, greens and violets.


More cool color schemes

MORE COOL COLOR SCHEMES


Neutrals

NEUTRALS

  • The final group of colors, we will consider are called neutrals.

  • They do not favor any of the hues more than another.

  • Blacks, grays, whites, and browns are neutral.


Contrasting accents

CONTRASTING ACCENTS


Accentuate for interest

ACCENTUATE FOR INTEREST

  • Often, artists will add small amounts of a color not part of the main color scheme.

  • This is to add interest to the image.

  • This painting is mostly triadic with small spots of green for interest.


Guess the color scheme

GUESS THE COLOR SCHEME


Color

  • Color is the most direct element of art for creating emotion.

  • It has immediate impact.

  • It can be disturbing and scary….


Color

  • or relaxing and peaceful.

  • The lack of contrast in this image along with its sunny yellow colors makes it a quiet, happy painting.


Color

  • Van Gogh was noted for creating intensely emotional paintings through his use of color and line.


Color application

COLOR APPLICATION

  • Van Gogh’s swirling brushstrokes exaggerate the color messages of his works.

  • Even though this is harmonious and peaceful in overall blue tone, hints of his depressed mental state are apparent in the touches of green.


Movement

MOVEMENT

  • Because cool colors recede and warm colors advance, their use together can create rhythm and movement.

  • Here the use of orange with blue creates contrast and a sense of space, even though the image is abstracted.


Rhythmic beat

RHYTHMIC BEAT

  • Varying hues and intensity levels in the squares of this painting create a sense of repetition and a visual beat.

  • Artists often use value and intensity changes to give an image dimension and movement.


Optical color

OPTICAL COLOR

  • One of the decisions an artist has to make when making a painting is what types of colors to use.

  • If they choose to match the actual color of the objects, they are using “optical” color.


Arbitrary color

ARBITRARY COLOR

  • When an artist chooses to use expressive or artificial colors, those not related to the actual object, they are using “arbitrary” color.

  • Notice the red man, he is not actually that color!

  • Arbitrary color is used for expressive impact.


Color

  • Artists can use colors related to the real object, but make the colors more intense for effect.

  • This is arbitrary color, too.


Color

  • Is this optical color or arbitrary?

  • Why, or why not?


Op art

OP ART

  • Op Artists use color relationships to create illusions.

  • Often the colors they choose are either complementary or triadic to create the illusion of movement.

  • Notice how this nonobjective image looks like real space.


Non painting

NON-PAINTING

  • Artists also use color schemes in artworks which are not painted.

  • This is a photomontage, which has pasted magazine and newspaper imagery and text.


Summary

SUMMARY

  • Color is the most important element for painting.

  • It is a property of white light.

  • White light is split into the spectrum by a prism.

  • A spectrum turned into a circle is called a color wheel.

  • Hue is the name of a spectral color.

  • Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.

  • Tints are light values of a color. Add water to watercolors to make tints. Add color to white when mixing other paints.


Color

  • Shades are dark values of a color. Add black to color when mixing all paints.

  • Intensity refers to the brightness or dullness of a color. Mix complementary colors to reduce the intensity. Dull colors are found in nature.

  • Primary colors cannot be made by mixing other colors; they must be bought. They include red, blue and yellow.

  • Secondary colors are made by mixing 2 primaries. Green, violet and orange are secondary. They are located between the primaries used to make them on the color wheel.


Color

  • Intermediate colors are made by mixing a primary with one of the secondaries made from it: blue-green, blue-violet, red-orange, red-violet, yellow-green, yellow-orange. They are located between the primary and secondary used to make them.

  • Neutrals are not related to a specific hue. They include white, black, grays and browns.

  • Complementary colors are located across the color wheel from one another. They are intense next to each other and dull each other when mixed.


Color

COLOR SCHEMES

  • Monochromatic color schemes use tints and shades of one hue.

  • Complementary color schemes use mixtures and arrangements of two colors opposite each other on the color wheel. This is the most dramatic color scheme.

  • Analogous color schemes use colors next to each other on the color wheel. They are harmonious combinations.


Color

  • Triadic color schemes use color equidistant on the color wheel. They are also very dramatic.

  • Warm color schemes use colors related to fire: reds, yellows, oranges and red-violet.

  • Cool color schemes use colors related to water and ice: blues, violets, greens, and yellow-green.


Color

EXPRESSIVE USES OF COLOR

  • Warm colors create happiness and excitement. They seem to advance.

  • Cool colors create calm and relaxation. They seem to recede.

  • Optical colors are realistic.

  • Arbitrary colors are expressive and not realistic.

  • Abrupt color changes (in value, in intensity, in hue, from warm to cool) create a sense of movement and rhythm.


Brush care

BRUSH CARE

  • Always store brushes handle down, not on the bristles.

  • Always, Always, Always wash brushes with cold water and soap!!!!!!

  • Never ever let paint dry on a brush, especially acrylic paint!!!


Paint

PAINT

  • Paint is made up of three substances:

    • Pigments: finely ground, colored powders

    • Binders: liquid which holds the pigments together for them to be spread onto a surface, and which holds the pigments to the surface

    • Solvent: liquid which dissolves or thins the binder; used for clean-up too


How paints differ

HOW PAINTS DIFFER

  • The binder is what differentiates the various paints.

  • Watercolors have a binder of gum arabic.

  • They are one of the most ancient paints.

  • Their solvent is water.

  • Paper or other absorbent surfaces are acceptable grounds.

  • Watercolor is transparent.


Tempera

TEMPERA

  • The other ancient paint is tempera.

  • Originally, the binder was egg yolk.

  • Today, it is a glue.

  • It is an opaque paint.

  • It can be painted onto gessoed surfaces and paper.

  • Its solvent is water.


Color

OIL

  • During the Renaissance, Jan van Eyck, from Flanders, mixed linseed oil with pigments to make oil paint.

  • It takes a long time to dry, allowing for painting details.

  • The binder is either linseed oil or poppy seed oil.

  • Its solvent is mineral spirits or turpentine.

  • Oil eats up surfaces, so it must be painted onto a gessoed ground.


Acrylic

ACRYLIC

  • The newest paint is acrylic.

  • Its binder is polymer, which dries into plastic.

  • Its solvent is water, while it is wet.

  • Once dry, it is impervious.

  • It sticks to any surface.


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