The Civil War: 1861-1865
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The Civil War: 1861-1865. Election of 1860. √. John C. Breckenridge – Southern Democrat. vs. Stephen A. Douglas - Democrat. Abraham Lincoln – Republican. John Bell – Constitutional Union. Why did Lincoln win?. North v South in 1861: which side had all the advantages?.

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The Civil War: 1861-1865

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The civil war 1861 1865

The Civil War: 1861-1865


Election of 1860

Election of 1860

John C. Breckenridge – Southern Democrat

vs

Stephen A. Douglas - Democrat

Abraham Lincoln – Republican

John Bell – Constitutional Union

Why did Lincoln win?


North v south in 1861 which side had all the advantages

North v South in 1861: which side had all the advantages?

So why does it take four years for the North to win?


Lincoln s ea rly decisions

Lincoln’s ea, rly decisions:

  • Keep slave-holding “border states” loyal

  • Puts border states under martial (military) law = ________

  • Gets rid of habeus corpus= _________

______, ______, _______, ______


Characteristics of each side

CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SIDE

SOUTH/CONFEDERACY

--industry:

--Capital:

--Leaders:

--Strategy:

--Cause:

  • NORTH/UNION

    --industry:

    --Capital:

    --Leaders:

    --Strategy:

    --Cause:


The anaconda plan

The Anaconda Plan

  • Devise a strategy to win the war

  • Devised by General Winfield Scott

    • _________

    • _________

    • _________


Select a military leader

Select a military leader

So Lincoln selects George McClellan! McClellan proved to be a weak leader though

RE Lee decides to fight for the Confederacy!


On the battlefield

On the battlefield

  • Why won’t McClellan fight?

    • __________

    • ____________!


On the battlefield1

On the battlefield

  • 1st Battle of Bull Run, 1861

  • Union defeat 25 miles away from Washington

  • Lincoln realizes __________

  • August 1862, 2nd Battle of Bull Run: Union is __________

    • _______________

  • A replaced McClellan is put back in charge after this defeat

  • Things not looking good for Union


The battle of antietam

The Battle of Antietam

  • Lee’s objectives – a victory in the border state of Maryland might convince this border state to secede!

  • Might convince GB to recognize Confederacy!


September 17 th 1862

September 17th, 1862

  • Antietam = ______________

  • _________ casualties

  • Considered ______________


Mcclellan s blunders

McClellan’s Blunders!

  • Advantage: Union! had a copy of Lee’s battle plans!

  • Lee forced to retreat when unable to break through Union lines

  • McClellan does nothing

  • Militarily, battle is a draw BUT ______________________________


Why is antietam so important

Why is Antietam so important?

Announced the ___________ _________________!

  • Freed all slaves ______________________

  • Did not free ______________


Effects

Effects

  • Changed goal of war from preservation (keeping together) of Union → _________

  • Kept the border states _______

  • Ended possibility of _______________


Effects con t

Effects (con’t)

  • Allowed for the recruitment ________________

  • Ended the criticism of _______________


Grant at vicksburg 7 1863

Grant at Vicksburg: 7/1863

  • Union now has total control of the ______________ through Vicksburg → ____________

“Bread riots” break out in Southern cities


Lee s last gamble gettysburg july 1 4 1863

Lee’s last gamble: GETTYSBURGJuly 1-4, 1863

  • Lee tries a 2nd invasion of the North

  • 3 day battle end with the failure of _________________

    • Out of 15,000 Confederate troops, only 100 survive

  • Union victory seen as ___________________

  • Helped Lincoln _________________

July 1 – 3, 1863


Both sides struggle to keep armies manned

Both sides struggle to keep armies manned

  • 1862 – Confederate draft begins

    • 20 Negro Law

  • 1863 – Union draft after Union defeat at Fredericksburg

    • ________________

    • _________________

      Is this a “poor man’s fight?”


Role of others

ROLE OF OTHERS

  • IMPORTANCE OF RAILROADS:

    • Lifelines for the armies; if you cut the rails, enemies would not be able to send and get supplies

    • Transport food, supplies, weapons; advantage for North which had more railroad mileage than the South

      • Focus on the railroads as a key targets came at the Battle of Petersburg (Union attacked Confed RRs)

  • IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN:

    • Dorothea Dix: ________________________

    • Louisa May Alcott: ________________________

    • Clara Barton:

      • ____________________________________________

        Women organizations created hospitals; worked to keep military camps clean;

        Other duties worked for Treasury Department and worked in factories making weaponry, made uniforms

        Some women pretended to be men and served as soldiers until discovered


Importance of blacks in arms

IMPORTANCE OF BLACKS IN ARMS

  • IMPORTANCE OF BLACKS IN ARMS

    • ____________________

    • ____________________

    • ____________________

      • ___________________


Appomattox court house 4 1865

Appomattox Court House: 4/1865

  • Official

  • _____________

    surrenders to ___________


Save for reconsruction election of 1864 lincoln v mcclellan

SAVE FOR RECONSRUCTION Election of 1864: Lincoln v McClellan

  • Not sure Lincoln can win!

  • New running mate chosen = Andrew Johnson→ southerner & small slaveholder--Why would Lincoln have him as a running mate? To get southern support

  • Lincoln sends South a message → the North will treat you fairly!


Lincoln s inaugural address

Lincoln’s Inaugural Address

“With malice toward none; with charity for all…”

Lincoln tries to convince the South to stop fighting!


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