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Progressives-3. Domestic 1876-1916. Amendment 18. Temperance: major issue before the Civil War Back in 1870’s Women and Protestant ministers WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) By 1879 militant under Francis Willard 1911 had 245,000 members . Prohibition continued.

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Progressives 3

Progressives-3

Domestic 1876-1916


Amendment 18
Amendment 18

  • Temperance: major issue before the Civil War

  • Back in 1870’s

    • Women and Protestant ministers

  • WCTU

    (Women’s Christian Temperance Union)

  • By 1879 militant under Francis Willard

  • 1911 had 245,000 members


Prohibition continued
Prohibition continued

  • 1893 Anti-Saloon League joined WCTU

  • Publicized problems: poverty, violence, unemployment

  • Opposition from immigrants, Catholics, working class, distillers (who also worked against women’s suffrage)



1917 lever act
1917 Lever Act

  • Outlawed the use of grain to make alcoholic beverages

  • Due to war rationing

  • Consumption of alcohol increasing in some areas

  • By 1914, more than ¼ states were dry


1919 18 th amendment
1919 18th Amendment

  • Went into effect 1920

  • Prohibited the manufacture, sale and transport of alcoholic beverages

    • WWI guilt

    • Big business and absenteeism

    • Not illegal to stockpile and drink it

      • W.C. Fields


The volstead act
The Volstead Act

  • Defined alcohol as any beverage having more than ½ of 1% alcohol

  • Also enforcement statute

  • Addicts: Wood alcohol, etc. went blind

  • Pot stills

  • Bathtub gin

  • Rum Runners


Prohibition and organized crime
Prohibition and Organized Crime

  • Popular Nullification:

    Speakeasies, blind pigs, Rum Runners

    Grosse Pointe Basements and tunnels

    The Great Gatsby

  • Organized Crime: The Untouchables

    • Elliot Ness, Baby Face Nelson, Purple Gang, Al Capone


Prohibition continued1
Prohibition continued

  • Production of sacramental wine in Church

  • Cough syrups

  • Repealed by Amendment 21 (Depression)


Women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage

  • No backing from Wilson

  • Said it was up to the states

  • When he stroked out in second term, his wife ran the Whitehouse!

  • Women’s efforts for the vote was hurt by efforts for Prohibition

  • Whiskey distillers, etc. worked against Women’s Suffrage


Women s suffrage continued
Women’s Suffrage continued

  • 1910 Washington gave women the vote

    • First state in 14 years

    • By 1914, 6 more states

  • NWSA and AWSA: 20 year rift over 15th Amendment

  • Reunited and became NAWSA


Women s suffrage continued1
Women’s Suffrage continued

  • Alice Paul and the Congressional Union

  • Brought militancy to the movement

  • England had just given women the vote

  • Chaining themselves to fences

  • Refused to eat in jail, force fed

  • Wilson was embarrassed

  • By 1919 39 states had given women the vote


Women s suffrage continued2
Women’s Suffrage continued

  • Wilson gave up

  • Recommended it as a reward for work done in the war effort

  • 1920 19th Amendment

  • 1918 Jeanette Rankin (Montana) first woman in Congress. Voted against going to war in WwI and WWII


More about women
More about Women

  • Since Civil War: teachers and Nurses

  • 1900: 5% of all U.S. doctors were women

  • 1960: No change

  • 1909 ILGWU: Triangle Shirtwaist Co fire 1911

  • New York City 146 killed

  • Much public sympathy= new laws and support


More about women1
More about Women

  • By 1916 ¾ states had accident insurance laws

  • Social Feminists:

    • Jane Addams…Hull House (Chicago)

    • Lillian Wald…Henry Street Settlement (NYC)

    • Margaret Sanger…Planned Parenthood

    • 1915 National Birth Control League


More about women2
More about Women

  • Women’s Clubs, Reformers, etc

  • Charlotte Gilman Women and Economics


Remember
Remember

  • Racial issues:

    • Booker T. Washington and Atlanta Compromise

    • WEB DuBois and Niagara Movement

    • 1909 NAACP

    • Progressives did not address racial issues

      KKK will bloom again in the 20’s


Books
Books

  • VeblenTheory of the Leisure Class: advocated economic management by economic engineers

  • Mary Baker Eddy 1879 Christian Scientist

    Science and Health: disease is caused by the mind alone


More books
More Books

  • 1885 Reverend Josiah Strong Our Country:

    The Uncle Tom’s Cabin of the Social Gospel movement

  • Washington Gladden Applied Christianity

  • 1878 Salvation Army in England (Booth)

    Invaded America by 1879


The end of the progressives
The End of the Progressives

  • Big increase in Catholic population:

    1870 6 million 1890 10 million

    Due to immigration from S. and E. Europe

    Education: Child Centered Progressive

    Dewey

    Not so much in the South

    Especially Black children


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