Bus 290 critical thinking for managers
Download
1 / 12

BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 47 Views
  • Uploaded on

BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers. Text Table of Contents #4: What are the Reasons?. What Are the Reasons?. Arguments intend to convince us to accept a conclusion – i.e., a position, claim, belief, etc. Why does the author want us to accept this conclusion?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers' - raja-pena


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Bus 290 critical thinking for managers

BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers

Text Table of Contents #4:

What are the Reasons?


What are the reasons
What Are the Reasons?

  • Arguments intend to convince us to accept a conclusion – i.e., a position, claim, belief, etc.

  • Why does the author want us to accept this conclusion?

  • Reasons tell us why that conclusion should be accepted.

  • Will Ferrell


Identifying the reasons
Identifying the Reasons

  • For each sentence ask:

    • Does this sentence support the conclusion?

  • Or does it make sense when you precede the sentence with:

    • The conclusion is true because …


Reasons
Reasons

  • Reasons + Inferences  Conclusion

  • The acceptability of a conclusion depends on

    • the quality of the reasons (evidence)

    • the validity of the inferences (logic)


  • Should the public be shown actual courtroom trials on television?

  • It seems as though the system can easily be corrupted by having cameras in the courtroom.

  • Victims are hesitant enough when testifying in front of a small crowd, but their knowledge that every word is being sent to countless homes would increase the likelihood that they would simply refuse to testify.

  • There is little to no assumed innocence for the accused when their trial is put on television.

  • People do not watch court television because they are concerned about our country’s ability to effectively carry out the proceedings of the judicial system; instead, they are looking for the drama in witness testimony: entertainment.

  • Thus, leave the cameras out of the courtrooms, and let the public view sitcom drama based on the legal system.


  • Issue: television? Should court trials be televised to the public?

  • Conclusion: Do not televise court trials.

  • R1: Televising corrupts judicial system.

    • SR1a: Fewer victims will testify.

    • SR1b: Presumed innocence will disappear.

  • R2: Public wants drama in witness’ testimony (i.e., entertainment) – not judicial process.


Inference
Inference television?

  • Infer deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements (Oxford dictionary)

  • Validity of inference

    • does not refer to truth of premise or conclusion

    • refers to the form of the inference

    • i.e., how the inference is drawn

  • A word about inference - induction vs. deduction

    • induction – results in probable conclusion

    • deduction results in certain conclusion


Valid form of inference
Valid Form of television? Inference

  • All fruits are sweet.

  • A banana is a fruit.

  • Therefore, a banana is sweet.

  • For the conclusion to be necessarily true, the premises need to be true.


Invalid form of inference
Invalid Form of Inference television?

  • Leading from true premises to a false conclusion.

  • All apples are fruit. (correct)

  • Bananas are fruit. (correct)

  • Therefore, bananas are apples. (incorrect)

  • Do you understand why this argument is invalid?


Validity of inference
Validity of Inference television?

  • When a valid argument is used to derive a false conclusion from false premises, the inference is valid because it follows the form of a correct inference.

  • A valid argument with false premises may lead to a false conclusion:

    • All tall people are Greek. (incorrect)

    • John Lennon was tall. (correct)

    • Therefore, John Lennon was Greek. (incorrect)

  • Do you understand why this argument is valid?


Validity of inference1
Validity of Inference television?

  • A valid argument can also be used to derive a true conclusion from false premises:

    • All tall people are musicians (incorrect)

    • John Lennon was tall (correct)

    • Therefore, John Lennon was a musician (correct)

  • Do you understand why this argument is valid?


Quality of evidence
Quality of Evidence television?

  • Facts, examples, analogies, statistics, authorities, etc.

  • Observations, beliefs, principles

  • Later we will explore more thoroughly how to evaluate the quality of evidence


ad