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A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH. *Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & + Bikash C Pal *Centre for Process Systems Engineering, + Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

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a wide area system for power transmission security enhancement using a process systems approach

A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

*Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & +Bikash C Pal

*Centre for Process Systems Engineering, +Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

WAMS Workshop, 12th-13th April 2010

contents
Contents:
  • Problem, Motivation & Objectives
  • Methods
    • ICA
    • RD
  • Case Examples
  • Result

2

problem
Problem:

0.3 – 0.4 Hz

~0.5 Hz

4

objectives
Objectives:
  • Develop methods and tools that use available data to infer system stability
    • Detect inter-area modes
    • Determine damping ratios

6

the challenge is
The Challenge Is...

By contrast...

  • Frequency and damping from ambient data
  • Some methods:
    • Independent Component Analysis
    • Random Decrement

7

mode estimation basis functions
Mode Estimation: Basis Functions
  • Simple signals to represent complex signals
  • Different techniques:
    • Principal Component Analysis
    • Independent Component Analysis
    • Empirical Mode Decomposition

9

independent component analysis ica
Independent Component Analysis (ICA):
  • Independent narrowband oscillatory sources – Independent Components (ICs)
  • Spectral ICA – uses power spectra
    • Sources are narrowband features in frequency spectrum
    • However, also removes phase information

10

ica flowchart

START

ICA: Flowchart

Is

NO

maximum?

YES

Store D and C

11

END

N frequency channels

m process variables

ica significance indices
ICA Significance Indices:
  • Normalised mixing ratio of sources in each signal

X

D

C

12

ica example
ICA: Example
  • Synthetic signals sampled at 10 Hz (inter-sampling time: 0.1 s) for a duration of 300 s with noise added such that the SNRs are 2, 10, 4 and 2.5 respectively:

13

damping estimation random decrement rd
Damping Estimation: Random Decrement (RD)

Step input

Impulse

Random input

Linear System

16

rd flowchart
RD: Flowchart

START

Collect signal segments, Sj

Determine zi

END

17

rd process
RD: Process

y

Threshold

t

Segment 26

Segment 10

...

...

Take average

t

Impulse Response

t

tr10

tr26

18

rd signature
RD Signature:
  • Resulting time trace is in the form:

A

Amplitude

Time (s)

19

ica rd
ICA-RD:
  • ICA provides mode frequency information
  • RD provides estimate of damping
    • Accuracy of estimate depends on location of measurement
  • Solution – combine methods utilising SIs

20

ica rd1
ICA-RD:

Mode Frequencies

ICA

Data

Length of sliding window

Filter

Update Time

Significance Indices

Exponential Fit

Random Decrement

z,w

Cycles

21

Threshold

case 1 ica
Case 1: ICA
  • Monitoring System detected 0.07 Hz oscillation
  • Aim to determine source
  • Analysis done:
    • Modes in power flows between substations
    • Relative comparisons

23

case 1 ica1
Case 1: ICA

H

I

A

J

B

K

C

D

L

E

F

M

G

24

case 1 ica2
Case 1: ICA
  • ~0.07 Hz distinct
  • Most prominent alternately in A-C and L-M transfers

L-M

A-C

25

case 1 ica3
Case 1: ICA

Spine of oscillation

A

C

L

M

26

case 2 ica rd
Case 2: ICA-RD

0.3 – 0.4 Hz

Petäjäskoski

Keminmaa

Olkiluoto

Yllikällä

Rauma

Kymi

Espoo

27

slide30

Configurable Map

Dynamic Markers

30

slide31

Signal View

Damping

31

Detected Modes

slide32

Signal View

Damping

32

Detected Modes

slide33

Signal View

Damping

33

Detected Modes

a wide area system for power transmission security enhancement using a process systems approach1

A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

*Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & +Bikash C Pal

*Centre for Process Systems Engineering, +Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

WAMS Workshop, 12th-13th April 2010

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