A wide area system for power transmission security enhancement using a process systems approach
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A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH. *Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & + Bikash C Pal *Centre for Process Systems Engineering, + Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

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A wide area system for power transmission security enhancement using a process systems approach

A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

*Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & +Bikash C Pal

*Centre for Process Systems Engineering, +Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

WAMS Workshop, 12th-13th April 2010


Contents
Contents: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Problem, Motivation & Objectives

  • Methods

    • ICA

    • RD

  • Case Examples

  • Result

2


PROBLEM, MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

3


Problem
Problem: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

0.3 – 0.4 Hz

~0.5 Hz

4


Motivation
Motivation: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

5


Objectives
Objectives: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Develop methods and tools that use available data to infer system stability

    • Detect inter-area modes

    • Determine damping ratios

6


The challenge is
The Challenge Is... ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

By contrast...

  • Frequency and damping from ambient data

  • Some methods:

    • Independent Component Analysis

    • Random Decrement

7


METHODS ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

8


Mode estimation basis functions
Mode Estimation: Basis Functions ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Simple signals to represent complex signals

  • Different techniques:

    • Principal Component Analysis

    • Independent Component Analysis

    • Empirical Mode Decomposition

9


Independent component analysis ica
Independent Component Analysis (ICA): ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Independent narrowband oscillatory sources – Independent Components (ICs)

  • Spectral ICA – uses power spectra

    • Sources are narrowband features in frequency spectrum

    • However, also removes phase information

10


Ica flowchart

START ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

ICA: Flowchart

Is

NO

maximum?

YES

Store D and C

11

END

N frequency channels

m process variables


Ica significance indices
ICA Significance Indices: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Normalised mixing ratio of sources in each signal

X

D

C

12


Ica example
ICA: Example ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Synthetic signals sampled at 10 Hz (inter-sampling time: 0.1 s) for a duration of 300 s with noise added such that the SNRs are 2, 10, 4 and 2.5 respectively:

13


Ica example1
ICA: Example ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH


Ica example2
ICA: Example ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

15


Damping estimation random decrement rd
Damping Estimation: Random Decrement (RD) ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Step input

Impulse

Random input

Linear System

16


Rd flowchart
RD: Flowchart ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

START

Collect signal segments, Sj

Determine zi

END

17


Rd process
RD: Process ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

y

Threshold

t

Segment 26

Segment 10

...

...

Take average

t

Impulse Response

t

tr10

tr26

18


Rd signature
RD Signature: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Resulting time trace is in the form:

A

Amplitude

Time (s)

19


Ica rd
ICA-RD: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • ICA provides mode frequency information

  • RD provides estimate of damping

    • Accuracy of estimate depends on location of measurement

  • Solution – combine methods utilising SIs

20


Ica rd1
ICA-RD: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Mode Frequencies

ICA

Data

Length of sliding window

Filter

Update Time

Significance Indices

Exponential Fit

Random Decrement

z,w

Cycles

21

Threshold


CASE EXAMPLES ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

22


Case 1 ica
Case 1: ICA ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • Monitoring System detected 0.07 Hz oscillation

  • Aim to determine source

  • Analysis done:

    • Modes in power flows between substations

    • Relative comparisons

23


Case 1 ica1
Case 1: ICA ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

H

I

A

J

B

K

C

D

L

E

F

M

G

24


Case 1 ica2
Case 1: ICA ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

  • ~0.07 Hz distinct

  • Most prominent alternately in A-C and L-M transfers

L-M

A-C

25


Case 1 ica3
Case 1: ICA ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Spine of oscillation

A

C

L

M

26


Case 2 ica rd
Case 2: ICA-RD ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

0.3 – 0.4 Hz

Petäjäskoski

Keminmaa

Olkiluoto

Yllikällä

Rauma

Kymi

Espoo

27


Case 2 ica rd1
CASE 2: ICA-RD ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

28


RESULT ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

29


Configurable Map ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Dynamic Markers

30


Signal View ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Damping

31

Detected Modes


Signal View ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Damping

32

Detected Modes


Signal View ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

Damping

33

Detected Modes


Damping history of user-selected mode ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

34


The future grid
The Future Grid: ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

35


A wide area system for power transmission security enhancement using a process systems approach1

A WIDE AREA SYSTEM FOR POWER TRANSMISSION SECURITY ENHANCEMENT USING A PROCESS SYSTEMS APPROACH

*Jerry Thambirajah, *Nina F Thornhill & +Bikash C Pal

*Centre for Process Systems Engineering, +Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

WAMS Workshop, 12th-13th April 2010


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