Nanobiosensors. Sara Huefner November 6, 2006. Outline. Biosensor Background What is a Biosensor? Components of a Biosensor Principles of Detection Biosensors on the Nanoscale Current Research Potential Applications Conclusion. What is a Biosensor?.
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November 6, 2006
“Biosensor” once refered to any device which responds to chemical species in biological samples or using biological components.
A sensor that integrates a biological element with a physiochemical transducer to produce an electronic signal proportional to a single analyte which is then conveyed to a detector.
The component used to bind the target molecule.
Must be highly specific, stable under storage conditions, and immobilized.
Acts as an interface, measuring the physical change that occurs with the reaction at the bioreceptor then transforming that energy into measurable electrical output.
Signals from the transducer are passed to a microprocessor where they are amplified and analyzed.
The data is then converted to concentration units and transferred to a display or/and data storage device.
Some piezo-electric devices utilize crystals, such as quartz, which vibrate under the influence of an electric field. The frequency of this oscillation depends on their thickness and cut.
Others use gold to detect the specific angle at which electron waves (surface plasmons) are emitted when the substance is exposed to laser light.
The change in frequency is proportional to the mass of absorbed material.
Dr. Michael Strano at the University of] Illinois, "We have developed molecular sheaths around the nanotube that respond to a particular chemical and modulate the nanotube\'s optical properties."
SPOT-NOSED Project: A layer of olfactory proteins on a nanoelectrode could react with low-concentration odorants. This technology could be used by doctors to diagnose diseases at earlier stages.
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) derived triangular Ag nanoparticles were used to detect streptavidin down to one picomolar concentrations.
The School of Biomedical Engineering has developed an anti-body based piezoelectric nanobiosensor to be used for anthrax,HIV hepatitis detection.
The possibilities are endless!