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Native American Rights Movement. By Hayley Heino and Austin Yungmeyer. Outline. Native Americans rights A. Overview B. E isenhower’s restrictions C. Violation of religious grounds II. Native American protests A. Wounded Knee Occupation

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Native american rights movement

Native American Rights Movement

By Hayley Heino and Austin Yungmeyer


Outline

Outline

Native Americans rights

A. Overview

B. Eisenhower’s restrictions

C. Violation of religious grounds

II. Native American protests

A. Wounded Knee Occupation

B. International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous people

C. Occupation of Alcatraz

D. First Convocation of American Indian Scholars


Key terms

Key Terms

Lyng vs. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association

International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People

“Indians of All Tribes”

First Convocation of American Indian Scholars


Overview

Overview

  • The federal govt. has special trust obligations to protect tribal lands and resources, protect tribal rights to self-government, and provide services necessary for tribal survival and advancement.

  • Native Americans have fought long and hard to protect their religious freedom from the repeated acts of govt. suppression

    • Examples include: denial of access to religious sites, prohibitions on the use or possession of sacred objects, and restrictions on their ability to worship through ceremonial and traditional means.


Overview cont

Overview (cont.)

  • Indian treaties have the same recognition under federal law as treaties with foreign governments like France or Germany.

  • The Supreme Court ruled that even though they may live on an Indian reservation, American Indians have a right to receive all of the same services that state and county governments offer to all other citizens of the state.


Eisenhower s restrictions

Eisenhower’s restrictions

  • President Eisenhower tried to remove tribal preservation policies that had been in effect since 1934.

    • Under these policies, Indians had been able to establish local self-government and had been less likely to lose their lands

  • Eisenhower proposed that they return to assimilationist goals by “terminating” the tribes as legal entities.

  • Most Indian tribes resisted termination and the policy was abandoned in 1961.


Violation of religious grounds

Violation of religious grounds

  • 1988, in Lyng vs. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association, Supreme Court allowed the construction of a Forest Service road through an ancient site that was held sacred by several tribes

  • The Supreme Court ruled that the intrusion did not violate their First Amendment rights


Wounded knee occupation

Wounded Knee Occupation

  • February 27, 1973 - 300 Oglala Sioux Indians occupied the village of Wounded Knee to demand land and rights.

  • 200 FBI agents, federal marshals, and police surround and blockade the village.

    • Had automatic weapons that they used against the Indians.

  • Occupation lasted 71 days and ended in negotiated peace as the government promised to investigate Indian affairs.


International day of solidarity with indigenous people

International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous people

  • In 1992, Native Americans and many others protested the quincentennial celebration of Columbus Day.

  • In order to bring attention to the ways in which Columbus wronged the native peoples, a council of Indians declared October 12, 1992 the International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People.

  • Many soon joined the anti-Columbus Day movement including Christians when the National Council of Churches asked them to refrain from celebrating.

  • This movement brought out the truth of what Columbus did to the Native Americans in many books and schools.


Occupation of alcatraz

Occupation of Alcatraz

  • November 9, 1969 – occupation of Alcatraz begins when 78 Indians land there.

  • By the end of November, nearly 600 Indians from more than 60 tribes were living on Alcatraz.

    • Called themselves “Indians of All Tribes”

  • Indians related the state of Alcatraz to the poor conditions on the reservations.

  • Government cut off telephones, electricity, and water to the island, but many Indians stayed for over a year after this.

    • Government soon invaded the island and physically removed the Indians.


First convocation of american indian scholars

First Convocation of American Indian Scholars

  • The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars consisted of Indians speaking out about the ignoring and insulting of their race that occurred in the textbooks used in schools.

    • Resulted in the formation of the Indian Historian Press which evaluated such textbooks, finding no accurate information about the Native Americans.

    • More movies redressing the history of the Indians were created and more books about Indian history were written.

    • Teachers became sensitive to old stereotypes and removed inaccurate history books from curriculum.


Bibliography

Bibliography

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.

Bailey, Thomas A. American Pageant. Boston: Hughton Mifflin, 1998. Print.

"Civil Rights and Native Americans." Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://www.policyalmanac.org/culture/archive/native_americans.shtml>

 "The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights." The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/native.html>.


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