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Scientific Classification. Day One. S7L1- Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically . a. demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key.

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Presentation Transcript
day one
Day One

S7L1- Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically.

a. demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key.

b. Classify organisms based on a six-kingdom system and a dichotomous key.

slide3

***Bell Ringer***

  • NUTS & Bolts Activity C (10 minutes)

Choose one of the items from the bag. Pretend it is something nobody has ever seen before. You want to describe it to someone on the phone. You cannot say “it’s a nail.” But you can say the shaft or stem is “shaped like a miniature pencil.”

Draw your item in your Interactive Notebook and write your description (in complete sentences.)

slide4

***activator***

  • NUTS & Bolts Activity A (15 min)

Your group will be handed a bag with assorted nuts and bolts. Sort these objects into groups based on specific physical characteristics. Examples might be:

Each object in this group…

  • has a hole in the middle or does not have a hole in the middle
  • has a threaded shaft or does not have a threaded shaft
  • has a four-sided head or a six-sided head
  • has a pointy tip or has a flat tip
  • has a rounded (mushroom) head or has a flat head.
  • has indented grooves on top or has no grooves on top
  • has indented grooves in a cross pattern on the top or has a single slot on the top
  • has a shaft is more than twice the width of the head or shaft is less than twice the width of the shaft.
  • has a rough, silver or gray coating or is smooth and silver with no coating
slide5

Classification Notes One

  • Scientists classify living organisms into categories based mostly on their physical characteristics. The largest of these categories is the organization of Kingdom. The five kingdoms of living organisms from least complex to most complex are:
  • Kingdom Monera- bacteria and cyanobacteria
  • KindomArchaea- bacteria-like unicellular organisms that oftern inhabit extreme habitats.
  • Kingdom Protista- the simplest eukaryotic organisms. Most are single cell. Some live in colonies and are multicellular.
  • Kingdom Fungi- mushrooms, yeast, and molds. Can be single cell or multi-cellular.
  • Kingdom Plantae- the plant kingdom.
  • Kingdom Animalia- the animals
slide6

Why we use Classification

Classification helps scientists characterize traits and specifics on organisms.

We use classification to put all of earth’s known organisms into group and families.

Dichotomous Keys help us to figure out what genus and species an animal falls under.

For example, if a new organism was discovered, a scientist would go through a Dichotomous Key to try to find out the subject’s kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

slide7

Classification makes everyday life easier by putting organisms in a useful system.

  • Classification helps us to group the organisms we live with every day.
  • Classification also lets us have a system for reference and will continue to help as we study the organisms around us.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKwOlAqQoLk&list=PL68043E5115509A40

slide8

Each kingdom is broken down into further categories. To remember these categories you need to remember that

King Phillip’s Class Ordered his Family Genius to Speak.

We order you to speak, oh wise one.

Speak, oh wise one.

King Phillip

The Royal Family\'s Genius

slide9

Kingdom

Phylum/Division

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

slide10

An organism’s scientific taxonomic name (binomial nomenclature) is its Genus (capitalized) and its species (lower case.) Orangutans are Pongoabelii. Spider monkeys are Atelesaniscus. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2VVKynG3C1g

slide11

-At what point in their taxonomy do apes, humans, and monkeys begin to differentiate?

-Which of the four animals listed are in the same Family?

-What is the scientific name for the gorilla?

slide12

-What is the scientific name (binomial nomenclature) for the common house mouse?

-What is its species?

-Black rats and house mice are in the same___________ but are different ______.

slide13

In the Plant Kingdom, plants are divided into Divisions rather than Phyla.

-These three plants are in the same ____________.

-Which of the two plants are the most closely related?

Tomatoes and potatoes because they are in the same genus.

slide14

KingPhillip’s ClassOrdered his FamilyGenius to Speak.

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Speak

Or if you are a plant… KingDavid’s ClassOrdered his FamilyGenius to Speak.

practice questions
Practice Questions

The scientific name/classification of blacktail deer is Odocoileushemionus. What is its species?

A. Odocoileus B. hemionus C. animal

hemionus

2. The scientific name for a whitetail deer is Odocoileusvirginianus. What genus is this animal a member of?

A. Odocoileus B. virginianus C. animal

Odocoileus

slide16

3. The species of animals listed below are all members of the same ________________________.

f. ALL of these. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, and Family.

Mountain Lion (Panther) Jaguar (S. America) African Leopard

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Mammalia

Order:Carnivora

Family:Felidae

Genus:Panthera

Species:P. onca

a. Kingdom b. Order c. Family d. Phylum e. Class f. ALL of these to the left

slide17

4. Organisms that are in the same class will also be in the same_____________.

Genus

Phylum

Family

Species

5. Which of these is in the correct order?

phylum-class-order-species-kingdom-family-genus

kingdom-species-phylum-genus-order-class-family

kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species

Order-class-phylum-genus-species-kingdom-family

slide18

6. Which of these species of animals are most closely related?

Mountain Lion (Panther) Bengal Tiger African Leopard

a. Panther & Leopard b. Tiger & Panther c. Leopard & Tiger

slide19

7. Which of these two animals are most closely related?

a. Kangaroo Rat & Vole b. Kangaroo Rat & Packrat c. Vole & Packrat

slide20

7. Which order are these three animals in?

a. Animalia b. Chordata c. Mammalia d. Rodentia

slide21

8. These animals are in the same ____________ but are in different _____________.

Mountain Lion (Panther) Bengal Tiger African Leopard

a. species, classes b. family, species c. kingdom, families d. kingdom, classes

graded assignment
Graded Assignment
  • Bring in one of your stuffed animals with a taxonomical key. You must develop the key by searching for the taxonomy.
bell ringer
Bell Ringer

What is the scientific name for our dear Speedy?

Pagonavitticeps or P. vitticeps

2. What is her genus?

Pagona

3. What is her species?

vitticeps

4. What is her Order?

Squamata

slide26

Dichotomous Keys

  • A dichotomous key is a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world, such as trees, wildflowers, mammals, reptiles, rocks, and fish.
  • "Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous keys always give two choices in each step.
slide33

Guided Practice

Let’s Practice……..

Which bird is the Certhidea?

Which bird is the Platyspiza?

Which bird is the Geospiza?

Which bird is the Camarhynchus?

slide34

G

U

I

D

E

D

P

R

A

C

T

I

C

E

Let’s Practice….. What is fish letter g? a?

slide35

Cooperative Group Practice- Complete Norms ID in crews.

Answers to Dichotomous Key on Norms

A. Beverlus B. DallusC.Rajus D. Kentuckyus

E. Californus F. Walawala G. Dakotas H. Yorkius

REMEMBER- the objective is to work together to complete the task. Giving answers is to crew members is not acceptable. Help struggling crew members by showing them HOW to identify the Norm rather then by simply giving them the answer.

slide36

Cooperative Group Practice- Complete Norms ID in crews.

Answers to Dichotomous Key on Norms

A. Beverlus B. DallusC.Rajus D. Kentuckyus

E. Californus F. Walawala G. Dakotas H. Yorkio

REMEMBER- the objective is to work together to complete the task. Giving answers is to crew members is not acceptable. Help struggling crew members by showing them HOW to identify the Norm rather then by simply giveingthem the answer.

slide37

Opening/Closing-

Using your Pamishan Dichotomous Key homework sheet, identify this Pamishan.

Walk-thru example…

Broadus hairystarus

dichotomous key independent practice

Dichotomous Key Independent Practice

Identify the fish using a dichotomous key. Teacher needs to hand out the dry erase markers and white boards.

slide40

Now use the dichotomous key on your table to identify these fish 

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

Fish #1

Two united dorsal fins

10 spines

90

60

Jaw hinge extends to just below the eye.

30

Noticeable scales.

10

Rock Bass (Redeye)

Show Answers

slide41

Fish #2

Mottled pattern on (back) dorsal side, spots on sides.

NO SPOTs on the caudal fin.

90

Scales NOT noticeable.

No broad horizontal band.

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

60

30

10

Brook Trout

Show Answers

slide42

Rounded dorsal.

Scales NOT noticeable.

Deeply

Forked

90

Some black specks on the sides.

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

60

30

Channel Catfish

10

Show Answers

slide43

Two separate dorsal fins.

Concave forehead

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

90

60

30

10

Yellow Perch

Show Answers

slide44

Slightly

Indented

Caudal.

90

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

60

Bullhead Catfish

30

10

Show Answers

slide45

90

Caudal fin not forked OR slightly indented AT ALL.

Fully grown 5 inch adult……..

60

This is a Mad Tom catfish. They only grow a few inches in length. They are NOT on the key….

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Show Answers

Teacher may just use this as an example to illustrate shortcomings of most dichotomous keys.

slide46

Scales noticeable

Net or web pattern

Body more than 4X as long as it is broad.

90

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Chain Pickerel

Show Answers

slide47

90

60

30

10

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

Show Answers

American Eel

slide48

90

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Bluegill

Show Answers

slide49

90

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

Show Answers

30

This is a Redbreast. It is NOT on the key ;)

10

Teacher may just use this as an example to illustrate shortcomings of most dichotomous keys.

slide50

United, but nearly separate.

Mouth hinge extends past eye.

90

Largemouth Bass

60

More than 3X as long as it is broad.

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Show Answers

slide51

Scales noticeable.

More than 4X as long as it is broad.

90

60

Northern Pike

30

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

10

Show Answers

slide52

Scales not visible.

90

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

60

30

10

Show Answers

Rainbow Trout

slide53

Anterior-front

  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

90

60

30

10

Show Answers

White Suckah…Sucker….

slide54

Anterior-front

  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

90

60

30

10

Show Answers

White Crappie

slide55

This is a Black Crappie (pronounce “Crop’-ee”) and it isn’t on the key…

90

60

30

10

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

Show Answers

Teacher may just use this as an example to illustrate shortcomings of most dichotomous keys.

slide56

90

60

30

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

10

Show Answers

Carp

slide57

United

Height: 5 in.

Length: 17 in.

90

Hinge below eye

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Show Answers

Smallmouth Bass

slide58

Separated.

90

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Walleye

Show Answers

slide59

90

60

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

30

10

Show Answers

This is a Bowfin or “Mudfish,” and it isn’t on the key….

slide60

This is a Blue Catfish….

90

    • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-rear
  • Dorsal-top
  • Ventral-bottom
  • Elongated-stretched out
  • Concave-bowed in (like the mark in the grass if you drop a cannon ball)
  • Convex-bowed out
    • Barbels- whiskers
  • Caudal-tail

Dorsal is slightly pointed.

60

30

10

Show Answers

slide62

Opening/Closing

What tool is used to help identify and classify organisms?

A dichotomous key.

2. How many options are there for each number in this tool?

two

3. Use the Pamishandichtomous key

to determine which Pamishan is shown here.

This is number 10,

Broadus emmus.

slide63

Pamishan Creatures Activity One

Independent Practice (OPTIONAL)

-Each of you will be assigned a number for a Pamishan Alien and a dichotomous key (do NOT write on either one.) Use the dichotomous key to identify your Pamishan Alien.

slide64

Pamishan Creatures Activity Two

Independent Practice

Identify the Pamishan Aliens.

-Each of you will be assigned a number for a Pamishan Alien and a dichotomous key (do NOT write on either one.) Use the dichotomous key to identify your Pamishan Alien.

slide65

Pamishan Alien Dichotomous Key answers

Narrowusportus

Broadus archus

Narrowusplainus

Broadus hairyemus

Broadus hairus

Broadus anderscus

Narrowusmontanus

Narrowusgeorgius

Narrowusblankus

Broadus emmus

11. Narrowuscyclops

12. Broadus hairystus

13. Narrowusbeardus

14. Broadus walter

15. Broadus plainus

16. Broadus kiferus

17. Narrowusstarbops

18. Broadus tritops

19. Narrowuswolfus

20. Narrowusfuzzus

If time remains, finish the fish identification from yesterday OR, if that is done, move on to the salamander identification.

slide67

Salamanders:

Independent PRACTICE

Use your handout to identify these salamanders

Mudpuppy

Siren

1

4

Over 7 cm.

5

Spotted Salamander

2

Marbled

Salamander

Slimy

Salamander

Over 7 cm.

3

6

Tiger Salamander

slide68

Opening/Closing

dichotomous key

A __________________ is a tool used to help identify and classify organisms.

2. What is this organism?

This is number 1, Narrowus

portus.

Use the Pamishan key in the vinyl sleeve.

Key will say spikes on left leg. That is YOUR left as you are looking at it.

Use the salamanders key.

3. What is this organism?

This is a two-lined

Salamander.

Hind legs

Less than 7 cm.

No external gills

find arachnid dichotomous key
Find Arachnid Dichotomous Key

Quartermasters get group dividers.

Use the designated dichotomous key to identify/classify the organisms. Record your answer on the clear-vue folder. DO NOT click on the links until AFTER identifying the organism.

slide71

Segmented abdomen

  • No tail
  • Abdomen much larger than cephalothorax
  • Pedipalps much shorter than legs

B

Daddy Long Legs

slide73

Pedipalps

Wind Scorpion

D

Segmented abdomen.

Abdomen larger than cephalothorax.

Pedipalps about the same size as legs.

No pincers on pedipalps

slide74

Mite

E

-no segmented cephalothorax or abdomen.

-Spines

Size of a pencil point

-

Cephalothorax and abdomen join here

slide75

F

Whip spiders

  • Segmented abdomen
  • No tail
  • First leg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7wKyV7jMJ4

slide76

Tick

G

-no segmented abdomen or ceph.

-no narrowing where abdomen and cephalothorax meet.

slide77

-segmented cephalothorax

-abdomen much smaller than cephalothorax

Sea Spider

H

slide78

Abdomen NOT segmented

Argiope

I

Abdomen (narrowing at waist)

Some hair on cephalothroax but not on abdomen

Cephalothorax

tiny pedipalps

slide79

J

- NO segmented abdomen or cephalothorax

-narrow “waist.”

-pedipalps slightly shorter than legs

Curved pedipalps

Jumping Spider

slide80

K

Tarantula

-Pedipalps straight

No segmented abdomen or ceph.

-Narrow waist

slide81

pincers

Whip Scorpion

pedipalps

-no stinger on tip of tail.

-large

L

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FFmnk9eFas

slide82

Trapdoor Spider

Thick, tight jaws

M

Plated cephalothorax

pedipalps

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yJgPVxS5aI

slide83

N

Pseudoscorpion

pedipalps

slide84

Opening/Closing [Get Crew Folders. Today 1/15.) Answers only.)

dichotomous key

A __________________ is a tool used to help identify and classify organisms.

2. What is this organism?

Nornowalawala

Use the Norns key in the vinyl sleeve.

Use the salamanders key.

3. What is this organism?

Slimy Salamander

Hind legs

Less than 7 cm.

No external gills

using the insect dichtomous key to identify the order of this insect
Using the Insect Dichtomous Key to identify the order of this insect.
  • Quartermasters please gather-
  • Two dividers
  • Markers
  • Dich. Key folders
slide86

Order Phasmatodea- Walking Stick

Abdomen has more than 6 segments

Abdomen does not “split” or fork and does not have any kind of tail.

Using the Insect Dichtomous Key to identify the order of this insect.

slide87

Using the Insect Dichtomous Key to identify the order of this insect.

Eyes located on sides of head

Order Thysanura- Silverfish.

slide89

Clam Worm Soil Centipede Nightcrawler

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Arthropoda

Class Chilopoda

Order Geophilomorpha

Family Geophilidae

Genus Achilophilus

Species monoporus

Which of these animals are most alike?

slide90

Clam Worm Soil Centipede American Lobster

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Arthropoda

Class Chilopoda

Order Geophilomorpha

Family Geophilidae

Genus Achilophilus

Species monoporus

Which of these animals are most alike?

slide92

Use the Dichotomous Key for Stream Animals to Identify

Mayfly Larva

Single hook on end of each appendage (leg)

Tails are “thin”, like hairs.

slide93

Use the Dichotomous Key for Stream Animals to Identify

All these long, pointy parts are NOT legs.

These are legs

Hellgrammite

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNuz2VkI-PU

slide95

Use the Dichotomous Key for Stream Animals to Identify

These are little hooks.

Legs…3 on both sides.

Caddisfly Larvae

Emerging from sand tube.

slide96

Use the Dichotomous Key for Stream Animals to Identify

Cranefly Larvae

Hmmm. I don’t see any legs here…or a head for that matter!

slide97

Use the Dichotomous Key for Stream Animals to Identify

Dragonfly Nymph

These three short points are NOT “tails.” They are just short points..

use coral reef animal key1
Use coral reef animal Key

Has spines, but too small to see here. Does not look like a rock or stone.

It may have some tentacles, but they are few and usually not visible.

Looks kind of like a fat worm, doesn’t it?

slide102

I have lots of spines all over my body, but they are very short compared to the spines of my cousins.

Heart Urchin

use cedar glade flowers key
Use Cedar Glade Flowers Key

Change answer six so that it says “6” petals instead of “5.”

slide107

Price’s Wood Sorrell

A “daisy-like” flower would be similar to this. Multiple, long, slender petals.

slide109

None of these flowers is yellow in color even though they have a yellow center.

Blue-eyed grass

A “daisy-like” flower would be similar to this. Multiple, long, slender petals.

This color to the left is lavendar.

slide110

Dichotomous Key

Summative Assessment

Use the appropriate dichotomous key to identify the organisms.

(Separate PowerPoint)

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