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Exoplanet Characterization with JWST Jeff Valenti (Space Telescope Science Institute). Exoplanet Characterization with JWST. Investigators: E xoplanet community Scientific Category: Exoplanets Scientific Keywords: Planet formation and evolution Planetary atmospheres

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Exoplanet characterization with jwst jeff valenti space telescope science institute
ExoplanetCharacterization with JWSTJeff Valenti(Space Telescope Science Institute)


Exoplanet characterization with jwst
Exoplanet Characterization with JWST

  • Investigators: Exoplanet community

  • Scientific Category: Exoplanets

  • Scientific Keywords:

    • Planet formation and evolution

    • Planetary atmospheres

  • Instruments: NIRSpec, MIRI, NIRCam

  • Proprietary Period: 0-12 months

  • Requested Allocation: 2600 hours (6% of 5 years)

DRAFT – pleasecirculate!


Key questions
Key Questions

  • Explore the diversity of planets

    • Density, Composition, Stratospheres, Eccentricity, …

  • How do planets form/arrive so close to star?

    • Signatures of core-accretion processes

    • Migration and other dynamical processes

  • Processes that control planetary atmospheres

    • Cloud formation, non-equilibrium chemistry, etc.

    • Stellar irradiation

    • Origin of water


Core accretion scenario
Core-Accretion Scenario

Pollack et al. (1996, Icarus, 124, 62)

Phase III

Giant planet formation

via rapid gas accretion

Phase II

Envelope formation via

gradual gas accretion

Phase I

Core formation

via rapid accretion

of planetesimals

in “feeding zone”

Core + Envelope

Core Only

Isolation

Mass


Diverse formation and evolution
Diverse Formation and Evolution

Low

Density

Exoplanet

Diversity

High

Density

Core mass, composition,

migration, heating, …


Schematic of transit and eclipse science
Schematic of Transit and Eclipse Science

Eclipse

Planet thermal

emissionappears

and disappears 10-3

Seager & Deming (2010, ARAA, 48, 631)

Transit

Learn about atmospheric

circulation from thermal

phase curves

Measure size of planet 10-2

See starlight transmitted

through planet atmosphere 10-4


Program goals
Program Goals

  • Refine planet radius and hence planet density

  • Atmospheric composition: H, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, …

  • Vertical temperature structure, effect of irradiation

  • Longitudinal temperature structure, heat distribution

  • Latitudinal temperature structure (grazing eclipses)

  • Measure small eccentricities transit/eclipse timing

  • Dependence on planet mass (Jupiter  super-Earth)

  • Constrain formation, evolution, and structure models

  • Sample stellar surface features (limb, spots, …)

  • Verify transits of terrestrial planets (e.g. Kepler)

  • Assess habitability?

  • Planetary exospheres?


Eclipse spectroscopy and photometry
Eclipse Spectroscopy and Photometry

IRS

IRS

MIPS

NICMOS

Model

HD 189733b

2

3

4

20

10

Swain et al., Astro2010 white paper


Gj 1214b transit spectrum from the ground
GJ 1214b Transit Spectrum from the Ground

Bean et al. (2010, Nature, 468, 669)

R=45

VLT/FORS2


Hd 189733b thermal emission from the ground
HD 189733b Thermal Emission from the Ground

NLTE

CH4

?

Swain et al. (2010, Nature, 463, 637)


Jwst instrument configurations
JWST Instrument Configurations

eclipses

transits

7

2

4

64

imaging

2

10

33







Transit spectrum of habitable ocean planet
Transit Spectrum of Habitable “Ocean Planet”


Thermal emission versus orbital phase
Thermal Emission versus Orbital Phase

HD 189733 b

1210 K

970 K

Peak temperature

precedes eclipse

by 16±6˚

0.979 transit depth

Knutson et al. (2007, Nature, 447, 183)

Spitzer, 8 µm, 33 hours


Photometric precision as target drifts
Photometric Precision as Target Drifts

Sum of 5x1 pixels

Single

Pixel

Barron et al. (2007, PASP, 119, 466)

Charge Diffusion

H2RG @ 1.05 µm

Not JWST detector


50 good targets today want 50 best for jwst
50 Good Targets Today… Want 50 Best for JWST

HD

149026

HD 189733

RV

Elektra

TESS

GJ 1214

Kepler

CoRot

HAT, WASP, XO, …


Transit study of cool atmospheres
Transit Study of Cool Atmospheres

Good targets from Kepler… better ones coming!

Extracted from Bill Borucki’s presentation on Monday. Data from Tome Greene.


Strawman survey program
Strawman Survey Program

Assumes an average of 5 hours / visit


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