Exoplanet characterization with jwst jeff valenti space telescope science institute
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Exoplanet Characterization with JWST Jeff Valenti (Space Telescope Science Institute). Exoplanet Characterization with JWST. Investigators: E xoplanet community Scientific Category: Exoplanets Scientific Keywords: Planet formation and evolution Planetary atmospheres

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Exoplanet Characterization with JWST Jeff Valenti (Space Telescope Science Institute)

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Exoplanet characterization with jwst jeff valenti space telescope science institute

ExoplanetCharacterization with JWSTJeff Valenti(Space Telescope Science Institute)


Exoplanet characterization with jwst

Exoplanet Characterization with JWST

  • Investigators: Exoplanet community

  • Scientific Category: Exoplanets

  • Scientific Keywords:

    • Planet formation and evolution

    • Planetary atmospheres

  • Instruments: NIRSpec, MIRI, NIRCam

  • Proprietary Period: 0-12 months

  • Requested Allocation: 2600 hours (6% of 5 years)

DRAFT – pleasecirculate!


Key questions

Key Questions

  • Explore the diversity of planets

    • Density, Composition, Stratospheres, Eccentricity, …

  • How do planets form/arrive so close to star?

    • Signatures of core-accretion processes

    • Migration and other dynamical processes

  • Processes that control planetary atmospheres

    • Cloud formation, non-equilibrium chemistry, etc.

    • Stellar irradiation

    • Origin of water


Core accretion scenario

Core-Accretion Scenario

Pollack et al. (1996, Icarus, 124, 62)

Phase III

Giant planet formation

via rapid gas accretion

Phase II

Envelope formation via

gradual gas accretion

Phase I

Core formation

via rapid accretion

of planetesimals

in “feeding zone”

Core + Envelope

Core Only

Isolation

Mass


Diverse formation and evolution

Diverse Formation and Evolution

Low

Density

Exoplanet

Diversity

High

Density

Core mass, composition,

migration, heating, …


Schematic of transit and eclipse science

Schematic of Transit and Eclipse Science

Eclipse

Planet thermal

emissionappears

and disappears 10-3

Seager & Deming (2010, ARAA, 48, 631)

Transit

Learn about atmospheric

circulation from thermal

phase curves

Measure size of planet 10-2

See starlight transmitted

through planet atmosphere 10-4


Program goals

Program Goals

  • Refine planet radius and hence planet density

  • Atmospheric composition: H, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, …

  • Vertical temperature structure, effect of irradiation

  • Longitudinal temperature structure, heat distribution

  • Latitudinal temperature structure (grazing eclipses)

  • Measure small eccentricities transit/eclipse timing

  • Dependence on planet mass (Jupiter  super-Earth)

  • Constrain formation, evolution, and structure models

  • Sample stellar surface features (limb, spots, …)

  • Verify transits of terrestrial planets (e.g. Kepler)

  • Assess habitability?

  • Planetary exospheres?


Eclipse spectroscopy and photometry

Eclipse Spectroscopy and Photometry

IRS

IRS

MIPS

NICMOS

Model

HD 189733b

2

3

4

20

10

Swain et al., Astro2010 white paper


Gj 1214b transit spectrum from the ground

GJ 1214b Transit Spectrum from the Ground

Bean et al. (2010, Nature, 468, 669)

R=45

VLT/FORS2


Hd 189733b thermal emission from the ground

HD 189733b Thermal Emission from the Ground

NLTE

CH4

?

Swain et al. (2010, Nature, 463, 637)


Jwst instrument configurations

JWST Instrument Configurations

eclipses

transits

7

2

4

64

imaging

2

10

33


Spectrum of a planet host

Spectrum of a Planet Host


Timeline of a transit observation

Timeline of a Transit Observation


Thermal emission from a hot jupiter

Thermal Emission from a Hot Jupiter


Simulated miri observations of hd 189733b

Simulated MIRI Observations of HD 189733b


Gj 1214

GJ 1214


Transit spectrum of habitable ocean planet

Transit Spectrum of Habitable “Ocean Planet”


Thermal emission versus orbital phase

Thermal Emission versus Orbital Phase

HD 189733 b

1210 K

970 K

Peak temperature

precedes eclipse

by 16±6˚

0.979 transit depth

Knutson et al. (2007, Nature, 447, 183)

Spitzer, 8 µm, 33 hours


Photometric precision as target drifts

Photometric Precision as Target Drifts

Sum of 5x1 pixels

Single

Pixel

Barron et al. (2007, PASP, 119, 466)

Charge Diffusion

H2RG @ 1.05 µm

Not JWST detector


50 good targets today want 50 best for jwst

50 Good Targets Today… Want 50 Best for JWST

HD

149026

HD 189733

RV

Elektra

TESS

GJ 1214

Kepler

CoRot

HAT, WASP, XO, …


Transit study of cool atmospheres

Transit Study of Cool Atmospheres

Good targets from Kepler… better ones coming!

Extracted from Bill Borucki’s presentation on Monday. Data from Tome Greene.


Strawman survey program

Strawman Survey Program

Assumes an average of 5 hours / visit


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