Exoplanet characterization with jwst jeff valenti space telescope science institute
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Exoplanet Characterization with JWST Jeff Valenti (Space Telescope Science Institute). Exoplanet Characterization with JWST. Investigators: E xoplanet community Scientific Category: Exoplanets Scientific Keywords: Planet formation and evolution Planetary atmospheres

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Exoplanet Characterization with JWST Jeff Valenti (Space Telescope Science Institute)

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ExoplanetCharacterization with JWSTJeff Valenti(Space Telescope Science Institute)


Exoplanet Characterization with JWST

  • Investigators: Exoplanet community

  • Scientific Category: Exoplanets

  • Scientific Keywords:

    • Planet formation and evolution

    • Planetary atmospheres

  • Instruments: NIRSpec, MIRI, NIRCam

  • Proprietary Period: 0-12 months

  • Requested Allocation: 2600 hours (6% of 5 years)

DRAFT – pleasecirculate!


Key Questions

  • Explore the diversity of planets

    • Density, Composition, Stratospheres, Eccentricity, …

  • How do planets form/arrive so close to star?

    • Signatures of core-accretion processes

    • Migration and other dynamical processes

  • Processes that control planetary atmospheres

    • Cloud formation, non-equilibrium chemistry, etc.

    • Stellar irradiation

    • Origin of water


Core-Accretion Scenario

Pollack et al. (1996, Icarus, 124, 62)

Phase III

Giant planet formation

via rapid gas accretion

Phase II

Envelope formation via

gradual gas accretion

Phase I

Core formation

via rapid accretion

of planetesimals

in “feeding zone”

Core + Envelope

Core Only

Isolation

Mass


Diverse Formation and Evolution

Low

Density

Exoplanet

Diversity

High

Density

Core mass, composition,

migration, heating, …


Schematic of Transit and Eclipse Science

Eclipse

Planet thermal

emissionappears

and disappears 10-3

Seager & Deming (2010, ARAA, 48, 631)

Transit

Learn about atmospheric

circulation from thermal

phase curves

Measure size of planet 10-2

See starlight transmitted

through planet atmosphere 10-4


Program Goals

  • Refine planet radius and hence planet density

  • Atmospheric composition: H, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, …

  • Vertical temperature structure, effect of irradiation

  • Longitudinal temperature structure, heat distribution

  • Latitudinal temperature structure (grazing eclipses)

  • Measure small eccentricities transit/eclipse timing

  • Dependence on planet mass (Jupiter  super-Earth)

  • Constrain formation, evolution, and structure models

  • Sample stellar surface features (limb, spots, …)

  • Verify transits of terrestrial planets (e.g. Kepler)

  • Assess habitability?

  • Planetary exospheres?


Eclipse Spectroscopy and Photometry

IRS

IRS

MIPS

NICMOS

Model

HD 189733b

2

3

4

20

10

Swain et al., Astro2010 white paper


GJ 1214b Transit Spectrum from the Ground

Bean et al. (2010, Nature, 468, 669)

R=45

VLT/FORS2


HD 189733b Thermal Emission from the Ground

NLTE

CH4

?

Swain et al. (2010, Nature, 463, 637)


JWST Instrument Configurations

eclipses

transits

7

2

4

64

imaging

2

10

33


Spectrum of a Planet Host


Timeline of a Transit Observation


Thermal Emission from a Hot Jupiter


Simulated MIRI Observations of HD 189733b


GJ 1214


Transit Spectrum of Habitable “Ocean Planet”


Thermal Emission versus Orbital Phase

HD 189733 b

1210 K

970 K

Peak temperature

precedes eclipse

by 16±6˚

0.979 transit depth

Knutson et al. (2007, Nature, 447, 183)

Spitzer, 8 µm, 33 hours


Photometric Precision as Target Drifts

Sum of 5x1 pixels

Single

Pixel

Barron et al. (2007, PASP, 119, 466)

Charge Diffusion

H2RG @ 1.05 µm

Not JWST detector


50 Good Targets Today… Want 50 Best for JWST

HD

149026

HD 189733

RV

Elektra

TESS

GJ 1214

Kepler

CoRot

HAT, WASP, XO, …


Transit Study of Cool Atmospheres

Good targets from Kepler… better ones coming!

Extracted from Bill Borucki’s presentation on Monday. Data from Tome Greene.


Strawman Survey Program

Assumes an average of 5 hours / visit


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