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The Coming of War 1931-1942 . Chapter 14. Section 1: Dictators and War. Why it Matters. WWI and the Great Depression impacted almost every corner of the globe. Dictatorship and totalitarianism were able to grasp many states (nations).

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why it matters
Why it Matters
  • WWI and the Great Depression impacted almost every corner of the globe.
  • Dictatorship and totalitarianism were able to grasp many states (nations)
a bitter peace unravels
A Bitter Peace Unravels
  • With the end of WWI and the Treaty of Versailles nations again were divided over the terms of peace.
  • During the 1920’s many nations moved toward democracy and others in the opposite direction of totalitarianism
  • Totalitarianism – a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people
characteristics of a totalitarian state
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State
  • Single-Party dictatorship
  • Strong, charismatic leader often at head of government
  • State control of the economy
  • Use of police, spies, and terror to enforce the will of the state
  • Government control of the media and use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizens
  • Use of schools and youth organizations to spread ideology
  • Strict censorship of artists, intellectuals, and political rivals
repression in the soviet union and italy
Repression in the Soviet Union and Italy
  • The 1917 Russian Revolution was the first totalitarian state (Lenin)
  • His programs resulted in civil war, starvation ,famine, and death of millions of Russians
stalin s grip on the soviet union
Stalin’s Grip on the Soviet Union
  • Joseph Stalin (man of steal) - took Lenin’s place as the head of the Communist Party
  • His attempts to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial power caused millions of deaths (purges)
mussolini s fascist party controls italy
Mussolini’s Fascist Party Controls Italy
  • Italian totalitarianism was in many ways a result of the war, peace treaties, and economic depression.
  • Benito Mussolini – Fascist Party, trumpeted nationalism and promised to make Italy great again.
aggressive leaders in germany and japan
Aggressive Leaders in Germany and Japan
  • After WWI Germany became a democracy (Weimar Republic)
  • Economic woes and runaway inflation plagued the young government
the nazis rise
The Nazis Rise
  • The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi began to threaten the republic
  • They were not socialists or communist or any ism that promoted class interests or workers’ rights above German ethnic solidarity
adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler
  • Adolf Hitler – led the Nazi Party, failed artist, wounded and decorated WWI soldier
  • Wrote Mein Kampf(“My Struggle”) stated the problems facing Germany
  • His most piercing criticisms were of the communists and Jews
anti semitic
Anti-Semitic
  • Anti-Semitic – prejudice against Jewish people
  • Anti-Semitism had troubled Europe for centuries, motivated by religious intolerance and economic resentment
hitler seizes power
Hitler Seizes Power
  • Recognizing the power of Hitler’s party president of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933
  • Over two years he became chancellor and president then consolidated his power
  • This was a totalitarian regime (secret police) pgs. 438, 440
militarists gain power in japan
Militarists Gain Power in Japan
  • Reasserting power, military leaders argued that expansion through out Asia would solve Japan’s economic troubles
  • Japan did not become a totalitarian state, but remained a constitutional monarchy
the japanese expand their empire
The Japanese Expand Their Empire
  • In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria
  • 1937 Japan moved against China, gaining control over major Chinese railroad links and coastal areas
  • The “Rape of Nanjing” 200,000
dictators turn to aggression
Dictators Turn to Aggression
  • Germany and Italy resorted to acts of aggression similar to those of Japan in Asia
  • The League of Nations was powerless to do anything
hitler and mussolini threaten the peace
Hitler and Mussolini Threaten the Peace
  • Hitler focused on restoring Germany’s economy, army, navy, and air force in direct defiance of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Hitler spoke of the need to gain Lebensraum, living space
  • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia with many pleas and little response for the League of Nations
fighting breaks out in spain
Fighting Breaks out in Spain
  • Spanish Civil War – bloody conflict that raged from 1936 until 1939.
  • Fascist rebels fought against Spain\'s democratic Republic aided by Hitler and Mussolini
aggression goes unchecked
Aggression Goes Unchecked
  • Appeasement – policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peace
  • French and British policy in the 1930s’
slide25
Cont.
  • Anschluss (AHN shloos) – in the spring of 1938 Austria’s entrance into the Reich
  • Munich Pact – the agreement Chamberlain reached at conference with Germany declaring “peace for our time,” this only delayed WWII for 11 months
why it matters1
Why it Matters
  • Roosevelt condemned aggression in Asia but did little to stop it, while Britain and France continued appeasement in Germany
roosevelt opposes aggression
Roosevelt Opposes Aggression
  • Roosevelt criticized Japan’s aggression by calling it “reign of terror and international lawlessness”
  • Roosevelt suggested that no part of the world was truly isolated (pg. 444)
war erupts in europe
War Erupts in Europe
  • Hitler Launches a Blitzkrieg Against Poland
  • Blitzkrieg – sudden attack (lighting war)
  • France Falls to the Axis Powers
  • Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Allied Powers – Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S., China
  • Winston Churchill – British Prime Minister
  • The Battle of Britain is fought in the air. (pg. 446)
americans debate involvement
Americans Debate Involvement
  • America Favors Isolation
  • Theories behind why the U.S. became involved in WWI
  • Interventionists Urge Support for the Allies
  • Neutrality Act of 1939 – cash and carry provisions
slide34
Cont.
  • Isolationists Argue for Neutrality
  • Trade would automatically involve the U.S., argued The America First Committee
  • Roosevelt inches toward involvement with the Tripartite Pact – making allies of Germany, Italy, and Japan
should the u s enter world war ii
Should the U.S. Enter World War II

Isolationist Viewpoint

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Interventionist Viewpoint

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Make a list of both viewpoints using your text.

slide36
Checkpoint: According to interventionists, how would aiding the Allies actually keep the United States out of war?
america takes steps toward war
America Takes Steps Toward War
  • Lend-Lease Act – authorized Roosevelt to “sell transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article”
slide38
Cont.
  • Atlantic Charter – document that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of “general security”
  • U.S. Navy Battles German U-Boats
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